KERATOTOMY, RADIAL
KIDNEY
adolescents and obese people. It is not
serious and usually clears up on its
own. In severe cases, applying a mixture
of
salicylic acid
and soft paraffin and
scrubbing with a loofah may help.
keratotomy, radial
A now uncommon
procedure in which radiating incisions
are made in the
cornea
(up to, but not
through, its innermost layer) to reduce
myopia
.
Radial keratotomy has been
largely replaced by laser procedures,
such as
LASIK
,
which carry less risk of
permanent damage to the eye.
kerion
A red, boggy, pustular swelling
that develops as a reaction to a fungal
infection, usually scalp ringworm (see
tinea
).
The inflammation gradually sub-
sides over
6 -8
weeks, but, if severe, may
leave a scar and permanent hair loss in
the affected area. Oral
antifungal drugs
need to be taken for several weeks.
kernicterus
A rare disorder in which
newborn, especially premature, infants
suffer brain damage because of severe
jaundice (see
jaundice, neonatal
).
ketamine
A general
anaesthetic
,
given
by injection. It is mainly given to chil-
dren undergoing painful procedures,
such as
bone marrow biopsy
.
Ketamine
is often abused for its stimulant effect.
ketoacidosis
A combination of
acidosis
and
ketosis
.
ketoconazole
An
ant fungal drug
used
to treat
fungal infections
of the gut, skin,
and finger nails, and
candidiasis
(thrush)
of the mouth or vagina. It is also used
as a shampoo to treat dandruff. Adverse
effects include nausea and rash.
ketone
Any of a group of chemicals
related to acetone, which is found in
solvents such as nail polish remover.
Certain ketones are produced during the
metabolism
of fats. Excessive amounts
build up in the body in
ketosis
.
ketoprofen
A type of
nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drug
(NSAID) prescribed
as an
analgesic drug
for injuries to soft
tissues, such as muscles and ligaments.
Ketoprofen also reduces joint pain and
stiffness in arthritic conditions. It may
cause abdominal pain, nausea, indiges-
tion, and increased risk of
peptic ulcer.
ketosis
A potentially serious condition
in which excessive amounts of chemi-
cals called
ketones
accumulate in the
body. Ketones are normal products of
fat
metabolism
but are produced in ex-
cess when
glucose
is not available for the
body to use as an energy source, for
example in starvation or inadequately
controlled
diabetes mellitus
. Symptoms
include sweet, "fruity"-smelling breath,
loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal
pain. If the condition is not treated, it
may result in confusion, unconscious-
ness, and death. Treatment is the same
as for diabetes unless the cause is fast-
ing or starvation, in which case a
nutritious diet is usually effective.
keyhole
surgery
Another name for
minimally invasive surgery.
kidney
Either of the 2 organs that filter
the blood and excrete waste products
and excess water as
urine.
The kidneys
are situated at the back of the abdominal
cavity, on either side of the spine. Each
kidney is surrounded by a fibrous cap-
sule and is made up of an outer cortex
and an inner medulla.
KIDNEY
Glomerulus
of nephron
Cortex
Medulla
LOCATION
Renal capsule
Renal artery
Calyx
Fat
Renal pelvis
Renal
vein
327
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