KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
Transplanted
ureter
Bladder
K
kidney transplant
An operation in
which a person with chronic
kidney fail-
ure
receives a healthy kidney, either from
a living donor or a cadaver. One donor
kidney is sufficient to maintain the
health of the recipient. The new kidney is
placed in the pelvis through an incision
in the abdomen and carefully positioned
so that it can be connected easily to a
nearby vein and artery and to the blad-
der. The diseased kidneys are left in place.
The transplant avoids the need for
dia-
lysis
and often allows a return to normal
lifestyle. Kidney transplantation is more
straightforward and common than the
transplantation of any other major organ.
kidney tumours
Growths in the
kidney.
Kidney tumours may be cancerous (see
kidney cancer
)
or noncancerous. Noncan-
cerous ones, such as
fibromas
,
lipomas
,
and
leiomyomas
,
are often symptomless,
although a
haemangioma
(composed of
a collection of blood vessels) may grow
very large and cause blood to appear in
the urine. Treatment is usually not need-
ed for noncancerous tumours unless they
are large or painful, in which case they
may be surgically removed.
kilocalorie
The unit of energy equal to
1.000
calories
,
abbreviated to kcal. In
dietetics, a kilocalorie is sometimes re-
ferred to simply as a Calorie (or C).
kilojoule
The unit of energy equal to
1.000
joules
,
abbreviated to kJ. One kcal
(see
kilocalorie
)
equals 4.2 kJ.
kiss of life
A commonly used name for
artificial respiration.
kleptomania
A recurring inability to
resist impulses to steal, often without
any desire for the stolen objects. The con-
dition is usually a sign of an immature
personality. It is sometimes associated
with
depression
, and may also result from
dementia
or some forms of
brain damage
.
Klinefelter's syndrome
A
chromoso-
mal abnormality
in which a male has
1
,
or occasionally more, extra X chromo-
somes in his cells, giving a complement
of XXY instead of XY. The risk of a baby
having the condition increases with
maternal age. Features of the syndrome
vary in severity and may not become
apparent until puberty, when
gynaeco-
mastia
(breast enlargement) occurs and
the
testes
remain small. Affected males
are usually infertile (see
infertility
).
They
tend to be tall and thin with a female
body shape and absence of body hair.
Incidence of
learning difficulties
is high-
er in people with Klinefelter's syndrome
than in the general population. There is
no cure for the disorder, but hormonal
treatment can induce secondary
sexual
characteristics,
and
mastectomy
may be
used to treat gynaecomastia.
Klumpke's paralysis
Paralysis
of the
lower arm, with wasting of the small
muscles in the hand, and numbness of
the fingers (excluding the thumb) and
of the inside of the forearm. Klumpke's
paralysis is caused by injury to the
1
st
thoracic nerve (one of the
spinal nerves)
in the
brachial plexus
, which is usually
the result of
dislocation
of the shoulder.
knee
The hinge
joint
between the
femur
(thighbone) and
tibia
(shin). The
patella
(kneecap) lies across the front of the
joint. Two protective discs of cartilage
called menisci (see
meniscus
) cover the
surfaces of the femur and tibia to reduce
friction.
Bursas
(fluid-filled sacs) are
present above and below the patella
and behind the knee. External
ligaments
on each side of the joint provide sup-
port.
Cruciate ligaments
within the joint
prevent overstraightening and overben-
ding of the knee. The
quadriceps muscles
on the front of the thigh straighten the
knee; the
hamstring muscles
at the back
of the thigh bend it.
KNEE
330
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