LARYNGEAL NERVE
LARYNX, DISORDERS OF
the body.
Visceral
larva migrans
(
toxo-
cariasis
)
is caused by a type of worm
that normally parasitizes dogs.
Cutane-
ous
larva migrans (creeping eruption) is
caused by a form of
hookworm infesta-
tion
; the larvae penetrate the skin and
move around, leaving intensely itchy
red lines sometimes accompanied by
blistering. Both types of larva migrans
can be treated with
anthelmintic drugs
.
laryngeal
nerve
One of a pair of
nerves
that carry instructions from the
brain
to the
larynx
and send sensations
from the larynx to the brain.
laryngectomy
Surgical removal of all
or part of the
larynx
to treat advanced
cancer (see
larynx, cancer
of). After the
operation, many patients learn to speak
using their
oesophagus
.
There are also
mechanical devices available that are
designed to help generate speech.
laryngitis
Inflammation of the
larynx
.
Laryngitis may be acute, lasting only a
few days, or chronic, persisting for a long
period. Acute laryngitis is usually caused
by a viral infection, such as a cold, but
can also be due to an
allergy
. Chronic
laryngitis may be caused by overuse of
the voice; violent coughing; irritation
from tobacco smoke, alcohol, or fumes;
or damage during surgery.
Hoarseness
is
the most common symptom and may
progress to loss of voice. There may also
be throat pain or discomfort and a dry,
irritating cough. Laryngitis due to a viral
infection is often accompanied by fever
and a general feeling of illness. If
sputum
(phlegm) is coughed up, or if hoarse-
ness persists for more than
2
weeks,
medical advice should be sought.
laryngoscopy
Examination of the
lar-
ynx
using a mirror held against the back
of the palate (indirect laryngoscopy), or
a rigid or flexible viewing tube called a
laryngoscope (direct laryngoscopy).
laryngotracheobronchitis
Inflamma-
tion of the
larynx
,
trachea
, and
bronchi
,
caused by a viral or a bacterial infec-
tion. The disorder is usually mild, but
can be life-threatening. It is a common
cause of
croup
in young children.
larynx
The organ in the throat respon-
sible for voice production, commonly
called the voice-box. The larynx lies be-
tween the
pharynx
and the
trachea
.
It
consists of areas of
cartilage
, the largest
of which is the thyroid cartilage that
projects to form the Adam's apple. Below
it are the cricoid cartilage and the
2
pyramid-shaped arytenoid cartilages.
Inside the larynx are 2 fibrous sheets
of tissue, the
vocal cords
, which vibrate
to produce vocal sounds when air from
the lungs passes through them. These
vibrations are modified by the tongue,
mouth, and lips to produce
speech
.
LARYNX
Nasal
cavity
Pharynx
Tonsil
Epiglottis
Larynx
Vocal cords
Trachea
Attached to the top of the thyroid car-
tilage is the
epiglottis
,
a leaf-shaped flap
of cartilage that drops over the larynx to
prevent food from entering the trachea
when swallowing.
larynx, cancer of
A cancerous tumour
of the
larynx
.
The exact causes of this
cancer are not known, but smoking and
high alcohol consumption may be asso-
ciated factors.
Hoarseness
is the main
symptom, particularly when the tumour
originates on the
vocal cords
.
At an
advanced stage, symptoms may include
difficulty in breathing and swallowing,
and coughing up blood.
If
laryngoscopy
reveals a tumour on
the larynx, a
biopsy
is carried out. If the
tumour is small,
radiotherapy
or
laser
treatment
may be used. For unrespon-
sive and large tumours, partial or total
laryngectomy
may be considered.
larynx, disorders of
Laryngeal disor-
ders (those affecting the
larynx
) usually
cause
hoarseness
as they interfere with
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