can be estimated
assuming that pat-
terns of health and
illness in a commu-
nity do not change.
life support
The
process of keeping
a person alive by
artificially inflating
the lungs (see
ven-
tilation
)
and, if it is
needed, maintain-
ing the heartbeat.
ligament
A band
of tough, fibrous,
partly elastic tis-
sue. Ligaments are
important compo-
nents of
joints
;
they bind the bone ends
together and prevent excessive move-
ment. They also support various internal
organs. Minor ligament injuries such as
sprains
are treated with ice, bandaging,
and sometimes
physiotherapy
.
If a liga-
ment has been torn (ruptured), the joint
is either immobilized by a
plaster cast
to
allow healing or repaired surgically.
ligation
The surgical process of tying off
a
duct
or a blood vessel with a
ligature
in order to stop bleeding. The term is
used in tubal ligation, a form of steril-
ization in which the fallopian tubes are
tied off (see
sterilization, female
).
ligature
A length of thread or other
material used for
ligation
.
LIFE SUPPORT
TYPICAL JOINT
lightening
A feeling experienced by
many pregnant women when the baby's
head descends into the pelvic cavity.
Lightening usually occurs in the final 3
weeks of pregnancy, leaving more space
in the upper abdomen and relieving
pressure under the
diaphragm
.
light treatment
See
phototherapy
.
lignocaine
Former name for
lidocaine
.
limb, artificial
An artificial leg or arm,
known medically as a
prosthesis
, which is
fitted to replace a limb that has been
missing from birth or lost as a result of
amputation
(see
limb defects
).
limb defects
Incomplete development
of one or more limbs at birth. Limb
defects are rare and may be inherited or
form part of a
syndrome
.
In a condition
called
phocomelia
,
hands, feet, or tiny
finger- or toe-buds are attached to limb
stumps or grow directly from the trunk.
The sedative drug
thalidomide
, when
taken by pregnant women, is known to
have caused phocomelia in fetuses.
limbic system
A ring-shaped area in
the centre of the
brain
consisting of a
number of connected clusters of nerve
cells. The limbic system plays a role in
influencing the
autonomic nervous sys-
tem
, which automatically regulates body
functions; the emotions; and the sense
of smell. The system is extensive, and
contains various different substructures
including the
hippocampus
, the cingu-
late gyrus, and the amygdala.
LIMBIC SYSTEM
LIMBIC SYSTEM
Cingulate gyrus
Fornix
LOCATION
Mamillary
body
Septum pellucidum
Column of fornix
Olfactory bulb
Midbrain
Amygdala
Pons
Hippocampus
Brainstem
- Parahippocampal
gyrus
340
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