obtained from petroleum. It can
cause anal irritation, and prolonged use
may impair the absorption of vitamins
from the intestine into the blood.
ACE inhibitor drug
monly used to treat
by protrusion of the tongue between the
teeth so that the "s" sound is replaced
by "th". Sometimes the cause is a cleft
eft Up and palate
children, there is no physical defect and
lisping disappears by the age of about 4.
An infection that is common
in animals and may also affect humans.
It is caused by the bacterium
which is widespread in
the environment, especially in soil. Pos-
sible sources of human infection include
soft cheese, ready-prepared coleslaw and
salads, and improperly cooked meat.
In most adults, the only symptoms are
fever and aching muscles. There may also
be sore throat,
and abdominal pain.
may develop in
severe cases. However, listeriosis can be
life-threatening, particularly in elderly
people, those with reduced immunity,
and newborn babies. In pregnant women,
infection may cause a miscarriage.
The condition is diagnosed by
and analysis of other body fluids,
such as urine. Treatment is with
A drug used in the long-term
. High levels of lithium in the blood
may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, blurred
vision, tremor, drowsiness, rash, and, in
rare cases, kidney damage.
Surgical removal of a
(stone) from part of the
The procedure is only performed for
large stones; smaller stones are usually
crushed and removed using
or pulverized ultrasonically by
Position in which a
patient lies on his or her back with the
hips and knees bent and the legs wide
apart. Once used for
tion is still used for
and some types of pelvic surgery.
The process of using shock
waves or ultrasonic waves to break up
(stones) inside the kidneys, upper
X-ray beam to locate
Water- or gel-