LIQUID PARAFFIN
LITHOTRIPSY
liquid
paraffin
A
lubricant
laxative
drug
obtained from petroleum. It can
cause anal irritation, and prolonged use
may impair the absorption of vitamins
from the intestine into the blood.
lisinopril
An
ACE inhibitor drug
com-
monly used to treat
hypertension
.
lisp
A common
speech disorder
caused
by protrusion of the tongue between the
teeth so that the "s" sound is replaced
by "th". Sometimes the cause is a cleft
palate (see
d
eft Up and palate
).
In most
children, there is no physical defect and
lisping disappears by the age of about 4.
listeriosis
An infection that is common
in animals and may also affect humans.
It is caused by the bacterium
listeria
monocytogenes,
which is widespread in
the environment, especially in soil. Pos-
sible sources of human infection include
soft cheese, ready-prepared coleslaw and
salads, and improperly cooked meat.
In most adults, the only symptoms are
fever and aching muscles. There may also
be sore throat,
conjunctivitis
, diarrhoea,
and abdominal pain.
Pneumonia
,
septi-
caemia
, and
meningitis
may develop in
severe cases. However, listeriosis can be
life-threatening, particularly in elderly
people, those with reduced immunity,
and newborn babies. In pregnant women,
infection may cause a miscarriage.
The condition is diagnosed by
blood
tests
and analysis of other body fluids,
such as urine. Treatment is with
antibi-
otic drugs
,
such as
ampiciUin
.
lithium
A drug used in the long-term
treatment of
mania
and
manic-depressive
illness
. High levels of lithium in the blood
may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, blurred
vision, tremor, drowsiness, rash, and, in
rare cases, kidney damage.
lithotomy
Surgical removal of a
calculus
(stone) from part of the
urinary tract
.
The procedure is only performed for
large stones; smaller stones are usually
crushed and removed using
cystoscopy
,
or pulverized ultrasonically by
lithotripsy
.
lithotomy position
Position in which a
patient lies on his or her back with the
hips and knees bent and the legs wide
apart. Once used for
lithotomy
,
the posi-
tion is still used for
pelvic examinations
and some types of pelvic surgery.
lithotripsy
The process of using shock
waves or ultrasonic waves to break up
calculi
(stones) inside the kidneys, upper
ureters
,
and
gallbladder
for excretion.
LITHOTRIPSY
Control
unit
Lead apron
Monitors
X-ray receiver
X-ray beam to locate
kidney stones
Shock waves
Water- or gel-
filled cushion
X-ray source
Shock-wave
generator
EXTRACORPOREAL LITHOTRIPSY
342
previous page 340 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 342 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off