LIVER FUNCTION TESTS
LOFEPRAMINE
fever and night sweats. In the second
stage, adult worms occupy the bile ducts.
Their presence may lead to
cholangitis
and bile duct obstruction, which can
cause
jaundice
.
Treatment with an
anthel-
mintic drug
may be effective.
liver function tests
Tests of blood
chemistry that can detect changes in the
way the
liver
is making new substances
and breaking down and/or excreting old
ones. The tests can also show whether
liver cells are healthy or being damaged.
liver imaging
Techniques that produce
images of the
liver
,
gallbladder
,
bile ducts
,
and blood vessels supplying the liver, to
aid the detection of disease.
Ultrasound
scanning
,
CT scanning
,
and
MRI
are com-
monly used.
Radionuclide scanning
may
reveal cysts and tumours and show bile
excretion.
X-ray
techniques
include
cholangiography
,
cholecystography
,
and
ERCP
(endoscopic retrograde cholangio-
pancreatography). In these procedures,
a
contrast medium
, which is opaque to
X-rays, is introduced to show abnormal-
ities in the
biliary system
.
Angiography
reveals the blood vessels in the liver.
liver transplant
Replacement of a dis-
eased
liver
with a healthy liver removed
from a donor. Liver transplants are most
successful in the treatment of advanced
liver
cirrhosis
in people with chronic
active
hepatitis
or primary
biliary cirr-
hosis
. People who have primary liver
cancer are rarely considered for trans-
plantation because there is a high risk
that the tumour will recur.
During this procedure, the liver,
gall-
bladder
, and portions of the connected
blood and
bile
vessels are removed. The
donor organs and vessels are connected
to the recipient's vessels. After the trans-
plant, the recipient is monitored in an
intensive care
unit for a few days and
remains in hospital for up to 4 weeks.
living will
A written declaration, signed
by an adult of sound mind, that instructs
the person's doctor to withhold or with-
draw life-sustaining treatment if he or
she suffers from an incurable and termi-
nal condition. In the UK, such a document
has no legal force, but doctors will nor-
mally respect patients' wishes.
lobe
One of the clearly defined parts
into which certain organs, such as the
brain, liver, and lungs, are divided. The
term may also be used to describe any
projecting, flat, pendulous part of the
body, such as the earlobe.
lobectomy
An operation performed to
cut out a
lobe
in the liver (see
hepatec-
tomy partial)
,
lung (see
lobectomy
lung),
or thyroid gland (see
thyroidectomy
).
lobectomy, lung
An operation to cut
out one of the
lobes
of a
lung
, usually to
remove a cancerous tumour.
lobotomy, prefrontal
Cutting of some
of the fibres linking the frontal lobes to
the rest of the brain. This operation was
formerly used to treat severe psychiatric
disorders; it is very rarely performed now.
lochia
The discharge, after childbirth, of
blood and fragments of uterine lining
from the area where the
placenta
was
attached. The discharge is bright red for
the first 3 or 4 days and then becomes
paler. The amount of lochia decreases as
the placental site heals, and discharge
usually ceases within
6
weeks.
locked knee
A temporary inability to
move the
knee
joint. A locked knee may
be caused by a torn cartilage or by
loose
bodies
in the joint.
lockjaw
A painful spasm of the jaw
muscles that makes it difficult or impos-
sible to open the mouth. Lockjaw is the
most common symptom of
tetanus
.
locomotor
Relating to movement of
the extremities, as in locomotor
ataxia
.
lofepramine
A
tricyclic antidepressant
drug that is used in the long-term treat-
ment of
depression
.
345
previous page 343 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 345 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off