LIVER FUNCTION TESTS
fever and night sweats. In the second
stage, adult worms occupy the bile ducts.
Their presence may lead to
and bile duct obstruction, which can
Treatment with an
may be effective.
liver function tests
Tests of blood
chemistry that can detect changes in the
is making new substances
and breaking down and/or excreting old
ones. The tests can also show whether
liver cells are healthy or being damaged.
Techniques that produce
images of the
and blood vessels supplying the liver, to
aid the detection of disease.
reveal cysts and tumours and show bile
(endoscopic retrograde cholangio-
pancreatography). In these procedures,
, which is opaque to
X-rays, is introduced to show abnormal-
ities in the
reveals the blood vessels in the liver.
Replacement of a dis-
with a healthy liver removed
from a donor. Liver transplants are most
successful in the treatment of advanced
in people with chronic
. People who have primary liver
cancer are rarely considered for trans-
plantation because there is a high risk
that the tumour will recur.
During this procedure, the liver,
, and portions of the connected
vessels are removed. The
donor organs and vessels are connected
to the recipient's vessels. After the trans-
plant, the recipient is monitored in an
unit for a few days and
remains in hospital for up to 4 weeks.
A written declaration, signed
by an adult of sound mind, that instructs
the person's doctor to withhold or with-
draw life-sustaining treatment if he or
she suffers from an incurable and termi-
nal condition. In the UK, such a document
has no legal force, but doctors will nor-
mally respect patients' wishes.
One of the clearly defined parts
into which certain organs, such as the
brain, liver, and lungs, are divided. The
term may also be used to describe any
projecting, flat, pendulous part of the
body, such as the earlobe.
An operation performed to
cut out a
in the liver (see
or thyroid gland (see
An operation to cut
out one of the
, usually to
remove a cancerous tumour.
Cutting of some
of the fibres linking the frontal lobes to
the rest of the brain. This operation was
formerly used to treat severe psychiatric
disorders; it is very rarely performed now.
The discharge, after childbirth, of
blood and fragments of uterine lining
from the area where the
attached. The discharge is bright red for
the first 3 or 4 days and then becomes
paler. The amount of lochia decreases as
the placental site heals, and discharge
usually ceases within
A temporary inability to
joint. A locked knee may
be caused by a torn cartilage or by
in the joint.
A painful spasm of the jaw
muscles that makes it difficult or impos-
sible to open the mouth. Lockjaw is the
most common symptom of
Relating to movement of
the extremities, as in locomotor
drug that is used in the long-term treat-