LYME DISEASE
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
oestrogen hormones
and
androgen hor-
mones
.
Synthetic LH-RH, also known as
synthetic
gonadorelin
, is used to treat
delayed puberty, and to treat infertility
in women. LH-RH may cause headache,
nausea, hot flushes, vaginal dryness, and
irregular periods.
Lyme disease
A disease caused by the
bacterium
borrelia burgdorferi,
which
is transmitted by the bite of a tick that
usually lives on deer. At the site of the
bite, a red dot may appear and gradually
expand into an area up to 5 mm
(‘/4
in)
across. Symptoms including fever, head-
ache, and muscle pain usually develop;
these symptoms are followed by joint
inflammation, which typically affects the
knees and other large joints.
Symptoms may vary in severity and
occur in cycles lasting a week or so. If
the disease is not treated, complications
including
meningitis
,
facial palsy
,
and an
abnormal heartbeat (see
arrhythmia,
cardiac)
may develop. The most serious
long-term complication is
arthritis.
The
disease can be cleared up with
antibiotic
drugs
.
Treatment is most effective when
given soon after the initial infection.
lymph
A watery or milky body fluid con-
taining
lymphocytes
,
proteins, and fats.
Lymph accumulates outside the blood
vessels in the intercellular spaces of body
tissues, and is collected by the vessels of
the
lymphatic system
.
This system filters
the fluid and eventually returns it to the
bloodstream. Lymph plays an important
role in the
immune system
as well as in
absorbing fats from the intestine.
lymphadenitis
A medical term for in-
flammation of the
lymph nodes
, which
is a common cause of
lymphadenopa-
thy
(see
glands, swollen
).
lymphadenopathy
The medical term for
swollen
lymph nodes
(see
glands, swollen
).
lymphangiography
A diagnostic pro-
cedure that involves injecting a
contrast
medium
into lymph vessels (see
lym-
phatic system
)
so that these vessels and
lymph nodes, and any abnormalities,
can be seen on
X-ray
film. Lymphan-
giography has largely been superseded
by
CT scanning
and
MRI
.
lymphangioma
A rare, noncancerous
tumour of the skin or tongue consisting
of a mass of abnormal lymph vessels.
lymphangitis
Inflammation of the lym-
phatic vessels (see
lymphatic system
)
due to the spread of
bacteria
(commonly
streptococci) from an infected wound.
The inflammation causes tender red
streaks to appear on the skin overlying
the lymphatic vessels. These red streaks
extend from the infection site towards
the nearest
lymph nodes
. The affected
nodes become swollen and tender, and
there is usually fever and a general feel-
ing of illness. Lymphangitis requires
urgent treatment with
antibiotic drugs.
lymphatic system
A system of vessels
(lymphatic vessels) that drains
lymph
from tissues all over the body back into
the bloodstream. The lymphatic system
is part of the
immune system
and has a
major function in defending the body
against infection and cancer. This sys-
tem also plays a part in the absorption
of fats from the intestine.
All body tissues are bathed in lymph,
a watery fluid derived from the blood-
stream. Much of this fluid is returned to
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