Treatment is with a splint or with tem-
porary insertion of wire through the
bones to hold the finger straight. The
injury heals within 2-3 months.
One of the 3 tiny bones (known
collectively as the auditory ossicles)
that are situated in the middle ear.
The malleus, together with the
transmits sound vibra-
tions from the eardrum to the inner ear.
A tear at
the lower end of the
ing vomiting of blood. The syndrome is
commonly caused by retching and vom-
iting after drinking excessive amounts
of alcohol. Less often, violent coughing,
a severe asthma attack, or epileptic
convulsions may be the cause.
is passed down the
oesophagus to confirm the diagnosis.
The tear generally heals within 10 days
and no special treatment is usually
required. However, a
may sometimes be necessary.
ship between the upper and lower sets
when they are closed, affecting
the bite (see
) or appearance.
Malocclusion usually develops during
childhood. It is inherited, or is caused by
thumb-sucking or a mismatch between
the teeth and jaws - for example, the
combination of large teeth and a small
be used to move teeth into the proper
position, and if there is dental over-
crowding, some teeth may be extracted.
is used to treat
severe recession or protrusion of the
lower jaw. Treatment is best carried out
in childhood or adolescence.
A condition in which
a baby is not in the usual head-first
includes breech presentation (in which
the baby's bottom appears first), face
presentation, and shoulder presenta-
tion (in which the baby is lying across
the uterus). Breech presentations are
the most common. A breech baby may
be born by
. A shoulder presentation baby
usually requires a caesarean section.
Older term for
An X-ray procedure for
examination of the
. The breast is
gently flattened between an X-ray plate
and a plastic cover so that as much tis-
sue as possible can be imaged. The
procedure is used to investigate
, and to screen for
because it allows the detection of