MALLET TOE
MAMMOGRAPHY
Treatment is with a splint or with tem-
porary insertion of wire through the
bones to hold the finger straight. The
injury heals within 2-3 months.
mallet toe
See
claw-toe
.
malleus
One of the 3 tiny bones (known
collectively as the auditory ossicles)
that are situated in the middle ear.
The malleus, together with the
incus
and the
stapes
,
transmits sound vibra-
tions from the eardrum to the inner ear.
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
A tear at
the lower end of the
oesophagus
,
caus-
ing vomiting of blood. The syndrome is
commonly caused by retching and vom-
iting after drinking excessive amounts
of alcohol. Less often, violent coughing,
a severe asthma attack, or epileptic
convulsions may be the cause.
An
endoscope
is passed down the
oesophagus to confirm the diagnosis.
The tear generally heals within 10 days
and no special treatment is usually
required. However, a
blood transfusion
may sometimes be necessary.
malnutrition
See
nutritiona disorders
.
malocclusion
An
abnormal
relation-
ship between the upper and lower sets
of
teeth
when they are closed, affecting
the bite (see
occlusion
) or appearance.
Malocclusion usually develops during
childhood. It is inherited, or is caused by
thumb-sucking or a mismatch between
the teeth and jaws - for example, the
combination of large teeth and a small
mouth (see
overcrowding, dental
).
Orthodontic appliances
(braces) may
be used to move teeth into the proper
position, and if there is dental over-
crowding, some teeth may be extracted.
Orthognathic surgery
is used to treat
severe recession or protrusion of the
lower jaw. Treatment is best carried out
in childhood or adolescence.
malpresentation
A condition in which
a baby is not in the usual head-first
position for
childbirth
.
Malpresentation
includes breech presentation (in which
the baby's bottom appears first), face
presentation, and shoulder presenta-
tion (in which the baby is lying across
the uterus). Breech presentations are
the most common. A breech baby may
be born by
breech delivery
or
caesarean
section
. A shoulder presentation baby
usually requires a caesarean section.
malta fever
Older term for
brucellosis
.
mammary gland
See
breast
.
mammography
An X-ray procedure for
examination of the
breast
. The breast is
gently flattened between an X-ray plate
and a plastic cover so that as much tis-
sue as possible can be imaged. The
procedure is used to investigate
breast
lumps
, and to screen for
breast cancer
,
because it allows the detection of
X-ray beam
X-ray
plate
MAMMOGRAPHY
Compressed
Plastic
breast
cover
X-ray machine
DETAIL
Plastic cover
Mammography
technician
r
oat
354
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