breast tumours too small to be found
during a physical
A cosmetic operation to
make large or pendulous breasts smal-
ler (breast reduction), to enlarge small
reconstruct a breast following surgery
In breast reduction, unwanted tissue
is removed and the breast is raised to
correct drooping. Breast enlargement
involves the insertion of an implant
under the skin. Breast reconstruction
may be carried out at the same time as
The normal contours of
the breast are restored by the insertion
of an implant. Possible complications of
mammoplasty include leakage from the
implant, hardening of the surrounding
breast tissue, and scarring.
The lower jaw.
A mental disorder characterized
by episodes of overactivity, elation, or
irritability. Mania usually occurs as part
Symptoms may include extravagant
spending, repeatedly starting new tasks;
sleeping less; increased appetite for
food, alcohol, sex, and exercise; out-
bursts of inappropriate anger, laughter,
or sudden socializing; and delusions of
grandeur. If symptoms are mild, the
condition is called hypomania.
Severe mania usually needs treatment
in hospital with
Relapses may be prevented by taking
disorder that is characterized by a dis-
turbance of mood. The disturbance may
be unipolar (consisting of either
or bipolar (swinging
between the two). In a severe form that
is sometimes referred to as manic-
depressive psychosis, there may also be
grandiose ideas or negative delusions.
Abnormalities in brain biochemistry,
or in the structure and/or function of
certain nerve pathways within the brain,
could underlie manic-depressive ill-
ness. An inherited tendency is also an
established causative factor.
Severe manic-depressive illness often
needs hospital treatment.
are used to treat
given to control manic symptoms.
may be used to
may be useful
may also be helpful. With treatment,
more than 80 per cent of patients im-
prove or remain stable. Even those with
severe illness may be restored to near
normal health with lithium.
A therapeutic technique
involving the skilful use of the hands to
move a part of the body, joint, or muscle
to treat certain disorders. Manipulation
is important in
Manipulation may be used to treat
deformity and stiffness caused by bone
and joint disorders, to realign bones in
, to reposition a
joint after a
, or to stretch a
is used to help treat
of the brain and
The measuring of pressure
(of either a liquid or a gas) by means of
an instrument called a manometer.
Manometry is used to measure blood
pressure using an instrument called a
A skin test for tubercu-
The uppermost part of the
An abbreviation for
A severe form of protein and
calorie malnutrition that usually occurs
in famine or semi-starvation conditions.
Marasmus is common in young children
in developing countries. The disorder
causes stunted growth, emaciation, and
loose folds of skin on the limbs and
buttocks due to loss of muscle and fat.
Other signs include sparse, brittle hair;
diarrhoea; and dehydration.
Treatment includes keeping the child
warm and giving a high-energy, protein-
rich diet. Persistent marasmus can cause
mental handicap and impaired growth.