MARBLE BONE DISEASE
MASTECTOMY
marble bone disease
See
osteopetrosis.
march fracture
A break in one of the
metatarsal bones
(the long bones in
the foot) that is caused by running or
walking for long distances on a hard
surface. The fracture results in pain,
tenderness, and swelling. However, it
may not show on
X-rays
until callus
(new bone) starts to form. Treatment for
a march fracture is rest and, occasion-
ally, immobilization in a plaster
cast
.
(See also
stress fracture.)
Marfan's syndrome
A rare
gene-tic dis-
order
of
connective tissue
(material
that holds body structures together)
that results in skeletal, heart, and eye
abnormalities. Features of Marfan's syn-
drome usually appear after age
10
.
Affected people are very tall and thin,
with long, spidery fingers and weak liga-
ments and tendons. The chest and
spine are often deformed and the lens
of the eye may be dislocated. The heart
or
aorta
is often abnormal.
marijuana
The flowering tops and dried
leaves of the Indian hemp plant
cannabis
SATIVA
, containing the active ingredient
THC (tetra-hydrocannabinol). The leaves
are usually smoked but can be drunk as
tea or eaten in food. Physical effects of
marijuana include dry mouth, mild red-
dening of the eyes, slight clumsiness,
and an increased
appetite. The main
MARIJUANA
subjective feelings
are usually of calm-
ness and wellbeing,
but depression oc-
curs occasionally.
Large doses may
cause panic, fear of
death, and illusions.
In rare cases, true
psychosis
occurs,
with paranoid de-
lusions, confusion,
and
other
symp-
toms, which usually
disappear within a few days. Regular
use of marijuana may lead to a more
permanent state of apathy and loss of
concern (a condition that is known as
amotivational syndrome),
marriage
guidance
See
relationship
counselling.
MARIJUANA LEAF
marrow, bone
See
bone marrow
.
marsupialization
A surgical procedure
used to drain some types of
abscess
or
cyst
and to prevent further abscesses.
Marsupialization is used to treat certain
types of cysts affecting the
pancreas
and
liver
,
and cysts affecting the
Bartholin's
glands
at the entrance to the vagina.
masculinization
See
virilization
.
masochism
A chronic desire to be phys-
ically, mentally, or emotionally abused.
The term masochism is used to refer to
the achievement of sexual excitement
by means of one's own suffering through
activities such as bondage, flagellation,
and verbal abuse. (See also
sadism
;
sadomasochism
.)
massage
Rubbing and kneading areas
of the body, usually with the hands.
Massage increases the blood flow and
relaxes muscles; it may be used to re-
lieve muscle spasm, treat muscle injury,
and reduce
oedema
. Although massage
is most effective when carried out by
someone else, self-massage can allevi-
ate pain caused by muscle tension.
mastalgia
The medical term for pain in
the breast.
mast cell
A type of cell that plays an
important part in
allergy
. In an allergic
response, mast cells release
histamine
.
mastectomy
The surgical removal of all
of the
breast
, usually performed to treat
breast cancer.
Mastectomy may be used
for extensive breast cancer or for multi-
ple cancerous tumours.
For smaller
cancers,
lumpectomy
or
quadrantectomy
may be appropriate.
A mastectomy involves the removal of
all of the breast tissue and usually
some or all of the
lymph nodes
in the
armpit. Cells from the lymph nodes are
examined to determine whether can-
cerous cells may have spread. The
operation is performed under general
anaesthesia
and usually requires a stay
in
hospital of several
days.
Plastic
surgery
to reconstruct the breast may
be carried out at the same time as the
mastectomy or at a later time (see
mammoplasty).
Treatment with
radiotherapy
is often
given after surgery, especially if the
cancer has spread to lymph nodes. It
usually starts a month after surgery and
356
previous page 354 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 356 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off