breast and into
is continued for
weeks. Drug treat-
may also be given.
The process of chewing
food. The canines and incisors (front
teeth) shear the food. The tongue then
pushes it between the upper and lower
premolars and molars (back teeth) to be
ground by movements of the lower jaw.
is mixed with the food to help
break it down for swallowing.
Inflammation of breast tissue,
usually caused by bacterial infection
and sometimes by hormonal changes.
Mastitis usually occurs when bacteria
enter the nipple during
can also be caused by changes in levels
in the body - for exam-
ple, at the onset of puberty.
Mastitis results in pain, tenderness,
and swelling in one or both breasts.
Bacterial mastitis during breast-feeding
also causes redness and
and may result in a
Mastitis caused by infection is treated
engorgement. Mastitis caused by hor-
mone changes usually clears up in a few
weeks without treatment.
An unusual condition in
which itchy, irregular, yellow or orange-
brown swellings occur on the skin, most
commonly on the trunk. Mastocytosis
may also affect body organs, including
the liver, spleen, and intestine, and it
may cause symptoms such as diarrhoea,
vomiting, and fainting. Very rarely, the
condition leads to
which can be fatal.
The condition usu-
ally begins in the
year of life and clears
up by adolescence.
may be helpful in
lower part of the
temporal bone in
. It has a
as the mastoid pro-
cess, which can be felt behind the ear.
The mastoid bone is honeycombed with
air cells. These are connected to a cavity
called the mastoid antrum, which leads
into the middle ear. Infections of the
middle ear (see
ally spread through the mastoid bone
to cause acute
Inflammation of the
in the skull. The disease is caused
by infection spreading from the middle
) to the air cells in
the mastoid bone through a cavity
called the mastoid antrum.
Mastoiditis causes earache and severe
pain, swelling, and tenderness behind
the ear. There is usually also fever, a
creamy discharge from the ear, progres-
sive hearing loss, and displacement of
the outer ear. If the infection spreads, it
may lead to
blood clotting in veins within the brain,
Treatment is with
the infection persists, an operation
known as a mastoidectomy may be car-
ried out to remove the infected air cells.
with the hand is the usual
method of masturbation.
The death of a
or within 42
, or an
, from any pregnancy-
related cause. Maternal mortality rate
describes the number of such deaths
per year per set number of pregnancies.