MASTICATION
MATERNAL MORTALITY
MASTECTOMY
Incision around
breast and into
is continued for
6
weeks. Drug treat-
ment with
tamoxifen
or
chemotherapy
may also be given.
mastication
The process of chewing
food. The canines and incisors (front
teeth) shear the food. The tongue then
pushes it between the upper and lower
premolars and molars (back teeth) to be
ground by movements of the lower jaw.
Saliva
is mixed with the food to help
break it down for swallowing.
mastitis
Inflammation of breast tissue,
usually caused by bacterial infection
and sometimes by hormonal changes.
Mastitis usually occurs when bacteria
enter the nipple during
breast-feeding
. It
can also be caused by changes in levels
of
sex hormones
in the body - for exam-
ple, at the onset of puberty.
Mastitis results in pain, tenderness,
and swelling in one or both breasts.
Bacterial mastitis during breast-feeding
also causes redness and
engorgement
and may result in a
breast abscess
.
Mastitis caused by infection is treated
with
antibiotic
drugs
and
analgesic
drugs
,
and by
expressing milk
to relieve
engorgement. Mastitis caused by hor-
mone changes usually clears up in a few
weeks without treatment.
mastocytosis
An unusual condition in
which itchy, irregular, yellow or orange-
brown swellings occur on the skin, most
commonly on the trunk. Mastocytosis
may also affect body organs, including
the liver, spleen, and intestine, and it
may cause symptoms such as diarrhoea,
vomiting, and fainting. Very rarely, the
condition leads to
anaphylactic shock
,
which can be fatal.
The condition usu-
ally begins in the
1
st
year of life and clears
up by adolescence.
Antihistamine drugs
may be helpful in
relieving symptoms
of mastocytosis.
mastoid bone
The
lower part of the
temporal bone in
the
skull
. It has a
projection,
known
as the mastoid pro-
cess, which can be felt behind the ear.
The mastoid bone is honeycombed with
air cells. These are connected to a cavity
called the mastoid antrum, which leads
into the middle ear. Infections of the
middle ear (see
otitis media
) occasion-
ally spread through the mastoid bone
to cause acute
mastoiditis
.
mastoiditis
Inflammation of the
mastoid
bone
in the skull. The disease is caused
by infection spreading from the middle
ear (see
otitis media
) to the air cells in
the mastoid bone through a cavity
called the mastoid antrum.
Mastoiditis causes earache and severe
pain, swelling, and tenderness behind
the ear. There is usually also fever, a
creamy discharge from the ear, progres-
sive hearing loss, and displacement of
the outer ear. If the infection spreads, it
may lead to
meningitis
, a
brain abscess
,
blood clotting in veins within the brain,
or
facial palsy
.
Treatment is with
antibiotic drugs
.
If
the infection persists, an operation
known as a mastoidectomy may be car-
ried out to remove the infected air cells.
masturbation
Sexual self-stimulation,
usually to
orgasm
.
Massaging the
penis
or the
clitoris
with the hand is the usual
method of masturbation.
maternal mortality
The death of a
woman during
pregnancy
,
or within 42
days of
childbirth
,
miscarriage
, or an
induced
abortion
, from any pregnancy-
related cause. Maternal mortality rate
describes the number of such deaths
per year per set number of pregnancies.
357
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