METHYLPREDNISOLONE
MICRODISCECTOMY
children. Possible adverse effects of
methylphenidate include loss of appe-
tite, tremors, sleeplessness, and rashes.
methylprednisolone
A
corticosteroid
drug
used to treat severe
asthma
,
skin
inflammation,
inflammatory bowel dis-
ease
,
and certain types of
arthritis
.
Adverse effects are the same as for
other
corticosteroid drugs
.
methysergide
A drug used to prevent
migraine
and
cluster headaches
.
Methy-
sergide is usually given only under
hospital supervision, when other treat-
ments have been ineffective.
Adverse effects of this drug can in-
clude dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea.
Long-term treatment may cause chest
pain,
kidney failure
,
or leg cramps.
metoclopramide
An
antiemetic drug
.
It is used to prevent and treat nausea
and vomiting, including that associated
with migraine or caused by anticancer
drugs, radiotherapy, or anaesthetic drugs.
Metoclopramide may be given with a
premedication to reduce the risk of
inhaling vomit when under an anaes-
thetic. Adverse effects can include dry
mouth, sedation, or diarrhoea. Large
doses may cause uncontrollable move-
ments of the face, mouth, and tongue.
metolazone
A
diuretic drug
used to
treat
hypertension
.
Metolazone is also
given to reduce
oedema
in people with
heart failure
, kidney disorders,
cirrhosis
of the liver, or
premenstrual syndrome
.
It is also used to treat certain types of
kidney
stone
(see
calculus,
urinary
tract
).
Adverse effects can include weak-
ness, lethargy, and dizziness.
metoprolol
A cardioselective
beta-blocker
drug
that is used to treat
angina pec-
toris
and
hypertension
and to relieve
symptoms of
hyperthyroidism
. It is also
given after a
myocardial infarction
to
reduce the risk of further damage to the
heart. Adverse effects of metoprolol
include lethargy, cold hands and feet,
nightmares, and rash.
metronidazole
An
antibiotic drug
used
to treat infections caused by
anaerobic
bacteria, such as a dental
abscess
and
peritonitis
. Metronidazole is also used
to treat protozoan infections, such as
trichomoniasis
and
amoebiasis
. Adverse
effects include nausea and vomiting,
loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and
dark-coloured urine. Alcohol should be
avoided during treatment.
mexiletine
An
antiarrhythmic drug
used
to treat certain heart-rhythm disorders,
usually after a
myocardial infarction
.
Possible adverse effects include nausea,
vomiting, dizziness, and tremor.
mianserin
An
antidepressant drug
used
to treat severe
depression
, especially
that accompanied by
anxiety
or
insom-
nia
.
Mianserin usually takes several
weeks to become fully effective. Possi-
ble adverse effects include dry mouth,
blurred vision, constipation, dizziness,
and drowsiness. Rarely, prolonged use
may reduce blood cell production; regu-
lar
blood counts
are therefore carried
out during treatment.
miconazole
An
antifungal drug
used to
treat
tinea
skin infections, such as
ath-
lete's foot
,
vaginal
candidiasis
(thrush),
and fungal infections of internal organs.
Miconazole in the form of a cream or
vaginal suppository may, in rare cases,
cause a burning sensation or a rash.
micro-
A prefix meaning small, as in
microorganisms
(tiny organisms).
microangiopathy
Any disease or dis-
order of the small blood vessels. It may
be a feature of conditions such as
dia-
betes mellitus
,
septicaemia
,
eclampsia
,
glomerulonephritis
, and advanced
can-
cer
.
When microangiopathy occurs with
these conditions, the small blood ves-
sels become distorted, and red blood
cells are damaged. This causes micro-
angiopathic haemolytic anaemia (see
anaemia, haemolytic
)
microbe
A popular term for a microor-
ganism, particularly a harmful type that
causes disease.
microbiology
The study of microor-
ganisms, particularly those that are
pathogenic (disease-causing).
microcephaly
An abnormally small head,
usually associated with
learning difficul-
ties
.
Microcephaly may occur if the brain
is damaged before or during birth, or if
there is injury or disease in early infancy.
microdiscectomy
Surgery
to
relieve
pressure on the spinal cord, or a nerve
root emerging from it, that is caused by
protrusion of the soft core of an inter-
vertebral disc (see
disc prolapse
). The
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