MINIMAL BRAIN DYSFUNCTION
The profession that is con-
pregnancy and childbirth.
to induce medical termination of a
sible adverse effects include malaise,
faintness, nausea, rash, and, rarely, uter-
ine bleeding. Women over 35 who smoke
should not be given the drug.
A severe headache, typically
lasting 4-72 hours, accompanied by
visual disturbances and/or nausea and
vomiting. Migraine attacks may be iso-
lated or may recur at varying intervals.
There is no single cause of migraine,
although it tends to run in families.
Stress-related, food-related, or sensory-
related factors may trigger an attack.
may also trigger migraine.
There are 2 types: migraine with aura
(an impression of flashing lights and/or
numbness and tingling), and migraine
without aura. In migraine without aura,
there is a slowly worsening headache,
often on one side of the head, with nau-
sea and sometimes vomiting.
In migraine with aura, there may be
visual disturbances for up to an hour, fol-
lowed by a severe one-sided headache,
nausea, vomiting and light-sensitivity.
Other temporary neurological symp-
toms, such as weakness in one half of
the body, may occur.
Diagnosis is usually made from the
history and a physical examination.
Treatment for an attack is an
, if needed. If this is
not effective, treatment with
may prevent an
attack if taken before the headache
begins, but is now rarely used. Sleeping
in a darkened room may hasten recovery.
For frequent attacks, preventive treat-
ment may be needed. Keeping a diary
can help pinpoint trigger factors, and
prophylactic drugs may be prescribed.
Tiny, harmless, hard, white spots
that usually occur in clusters around the
nose and on the upper cheeks in new-
born babies and also in young adults.
fluid produced by the
mammary glands of mammals.
A rare type of
The syndrome is due
to excessive, long-term intake of calcium-
and milk. It is
most common in people with a
and associated kidney disorders.
Symptoms include weakness, muscle
pains, irritability, and apathy. Treatment
is to reduce milk and antacid intake.
milk of magnesia
A magnesium prep-
aration as an
The name given to
a severe form of
occurred in the mid-1950s, in people
who had eaten polluted fish from Mina-
mata Bay, Japan. Many people suffered
severe nerve damage and some died.
of calcium crystals and other mineral
salts in developing teeth. (See
The term used to
controls the amount of salts that are
excreted in urine.
In nutrition, chemical elements
that are essential in the diet. At least 20
minerals, including potassium, sodium,
and calcium, are vital for health. Some,
such as iron and zinc, are needed in
only tiny amounts (see
ments containing one or more minerals
in tablet or liquid form.Some mineral
supplements may be harmful in excess.
is the most commonly taken mineral
supplement and is used to treat
. It may also be given
to pregnant or breast-feeding women.
(See also individual mineral entries.)
A procedure for female
minimal access surgery
ally invasive surgery
minimal brain dysfunction
thetical condition thought to account
for behavioural and other problems in
children for which no physical cause is
found. It may be a cause of some
difficulty in concentrating,