MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
MISCARRIAGE
MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
Surgical instruments
Intravenous
Assistant
fluid
Suction
surgeon
Anaesthetic
instrument
equipment
Endoscope
Rigid endoscope
Surgeon
INSIDE THE ABDOMEN
Monitor
Instrument
table
MINIMALLY INVASIVE ABDOMINAL SURGERY
minimally invasive surgery
Surgery
using a rigid
endoscope
passed into the
body through a small incision. Further
small openings are made for surgical
instruments so that the operation can
be performed without a long surgical
incision.
Minimally
invasive
surgery
may be used for many operations in
the abdomen (see
laparoscopy
)
,
includ-
ing
appendicectomy,
cholecystectomy,
hernia repair,
and many
gynaecological
procedures. Knee operations (see
arth-
roscopy
) are also often performed by
minimally invasive surgery.
minipill
An
oral contraceptive
contain-
ing a
progestogen drug.
It makes the
mucus lining the cervix so thick that
sperm cannot pass through. It also has
other effects that impede conception.
Possible adverse effects include irregu-
lar periods, bleeding between periods,
ectopic pregnancy,
and
ovarian cysts.
minocycline
A
tetracycline
antibiotic
drug
used to treat
acne
, respiratory-
tract infections, and some genitourinary
infections. It is also used to prevent
meningococcal
meningitis
.
minoxidil
A
vasodilator drug
used to
treat severe
hypertension
when other
drugs have been ineffective. Prolonged
use can stimulate hair growth, and so it
is used in lotion form as a treatment for
male-pattern baldness (see
alopecia
).
miosis
Constriction of the pupil of the
eye. Miosis may be caused by drugs
such as
pilocarpine
or
opium
, by a dis-
ease affecting the
autonomic nervous
system
, or by bright light. A degree of
miosis is normal in older people.
miotic drugs
Drugs used in the treat-
ment of
glaucoma
to reduce pressure in
the eye. Used
topically
, miotic drugs
cause the pupil to contract, which opens
up the drainage channels and drains
fluid from the front of the eye. Side
effects include headache, particularly
over the eye, and blurred vision. Com-
mon miotics include carbachol and
pilocarpine.
(See also
mydriatic drugs.)
miscarriage
Loss of the fetus before
the 24th week of pregnancy or viability
(the ability to survive outside the uterus
without artificial support). The medical
term is spontaneous abortion.
371
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