MITRAL STENOSIS
MOLAR PREGNANCY
Before dental or other surgery, patients
with mitral incompetence are given
antibiotic drugs
to prevent
endocarditis
.
mitral stenosis
Narrowing of the open-
ing of the
mitral valve
in the
heart
.
The
left atrium (upper chamber) has to work
harder to force blood through the nar-
rowed valve. Mitral stenosis is more
common in women and may be accom-
panied by
mitral incompetence
.
Stenosis
is usually due to damage to the valve
caused by
rheumatic fever
.
The main symptom is breathlessness
on exertion. As mitral stenosis worsens,
breathing difficulty eventually occurs
when at rest. Other signs include
palpi-
tations
,
atrial fibrillation
,
and flushed
cheeks. There may also be coughing up
of blood and fatigue. Possible compli-
cations are as for mitral incompetence.
A diagnosis is made from the patient's
history, listening to heart sounds, and
by investigations such as an
ECG
,
chest
X-rays
,
echocardiography
, and cardiac
catheterization
.
Drug treatment is broad-
ly the same as for mitral incompetence.
If symptoms persist, balloon
valvulo-
plasty
may be carried out to stretch the
valve. Alternatively,
heart-valve surgery
may be performed to replace the valve.
mitral valve
A valve in the left side of
the
heart
. The mitral valve is made up of
2
flaps, which allows one-way blood
flow from the left
atrium
into the left
ventricle.
mitral valve pro-
lapse
A common,
slight deformity of
the
mitral
valve
,
in the left side of
the
heart
, that can
produce a degree
of
mitral incompet-
ence
.
The prolapse
is most common in
women and causes
a heart
murmur
. It
may be inherited,
but the cause is
often unknown.
Usually, there are no symptoms, and
treatment is not needed. Occasionally,
the condition may produce chest pain,
arrhythmia
, or, rarely,
heart failure
. Often,
no treatment is required for mitral valve
prolapse, but some people may be
treated with
beta-blocker drugs
,
diuretic
drugs
,
antiarrhythmic drugs
, or, rarely,
heart-valve surgery
.
mittelschmerz
Lower abdominal pain
that some women have at the time of
ovulation
. The pain is usually one-sided
and lasts only a few hours. It may be
accompanied by slight vaginal blood
loss. In cases of severe mittelschmerz,
oral contraceptives
may be prescribed to
suppress ovulation.
MMR vaccination
Administration of a
combined
vaccine
that gives protection
against
measles
,
mumps
,
and
rubella
.
The vaccination is offered to all children
at 12-15 months of age, with a booster
shot at 3-5 years. Vaccination is post-
poned if a child is feverish, and it is not
given to children with untreated
cancer
or
allergies
to aminoglycoside
antibiotic
drugs
such as
neomycin
.
Mild fever, rash, and malaise may
occur after vaccination. In 1
per cent
of cases, mild, noninfectious swelling of
the
parotid glands
develops 3-4 weeks
after vaccination. There is no evidence
for a link between MMR and
Crohn's
disease
or
autism
.
mobilization
The process of making a
part of the body capable of movement.
Mobilization refers to treatment that is
designed to increase mobility in a part
of the body recovering from injury or
affected by disease.
Surgeons use the term to refer to the
freeing of an organ or structure from sur-
rounding
connective tissue
and fibrous
adhesions (bands of tissue joining nor-
mally unconnected parts of the body).
moclobemide
An
antidepressant drug
used to treat severe resistant depres-
sion and social phobia. Moclobemide is
a reversible
monoamine oxidase inhibitor
and is less likely than other MAOIs to
cause high blood pressure. But, as with
all MAOIs, dietary restrictions still apply.
molar
See teeth.
molar
pregnancy
A pregnancy
in
which a tumour develops from the pla-
cental tissue and the embryo does not
develop normally. A molar pregnancy
may be noncancerous (a
hydatidiform
mole
) or may invade the wall of the
STRUCTURE OF HEART
373
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