MONORCHISM
MOSQUITO BITES
recovery, patients often feel depressed,
lack energy, and have daytime sleepiness.
monorchism
The presence of only one
testis
.
The most probable causes are
surgery (see
orchidectomy
)
and
congen-
ital
absence of the testis.
monosodium glutamate
A
food addi-
tive
that is used as a flavour enhancer
and seasoning. Monosodium glutamate
(MSG) is the sodium salt of an
amino
acid
. A short-lived illness involving pain
in the neck and chest,
palpitations
,
feel-
ing hot, and a headache may occur in
some people after eating food to which
large amounts of MSG have been added.
mons pubis
The rounded swelling over
the front of the
pubic bone
.
The mons
pubis, which becomes covered with hair
at puberty, is formed by a pad of fatty
tissue under the skin.
Monteggia's fracture
Fracture of the
ulna
just below the elbow, with disloca-
tion of the
radius
from the elbow joint.
montelukast
A specific
leukotriene re-
ceptor antagonist drug
that is used in
the management of asthma. It is not
used to treat acute attacks.
mood disorders
Disorders in which the
emotions are affected:
mania
,
depression
,
and
manic-depressive illness
.
moon face
Rounded facial appearance
that is a feature of
Cushing's syndrome
.
morbid anatomy
Also called pathologi-
cal anatomy, the study of the structural
changes that occur in body tissues as a
result of disease, especially the changes
visible to the naked eye.
morbidity
The state or condition of
being diseased. In medical statistics,
the morbidity ratio is the proportion of
diseased people to healthy people in a
particular community.
morbilli
Another name for
measles
.
morning-after pill
See
postcoital con-
traception
.
morning
sickness
See
vomiting in
pregnancy
.
morphine
An opioid
analgesic drug
de-
rived from the opium poppy. Morphine
is given to relieve severe pain caused by
myocardial infarction
,
major surgery,
serious injury, and
cancer
.
Morphine blocks the transmission of
pain signals at sites called opiate recep-
tors in the
brain
and
spinal cord
. The
drug also induces a sense of well-being
or euphoria. Side effects include drow-
siness, dizziness, constipation, nausea,
vomiting, and confusion. Long-term use
of morphine may lead to
drug depen-
dence
, with severe flu-like symptoms
when the drug is withdrawn (see
with-
drawal syndrome).
morphoea
A condition in which one or
more hard, flat patches develop on the
skin. It is a type of
scleroderma
but is
confined to the skin. Although harmless,
the condition can be disfiguring.
mortality
The death rate, which is the
number of deaths per
100,000
(or
10,000
or
1
,
000
) of the population per year.
Mortality is often calculated for specific
groups. For example,
infant mortality
measures the deaths of live-born infants
during the
1
st year of life.
Standardized mortality allows compari-
son of the death rate in, for example, an
occupational or socioeconomic group
with that for the entire population. (See
also
life expectancy; maternal mortality.)
morula
A stage in the development of
an
embryo
after
fertilization.
The fertil-
ized egg divides repeatedly as it travels
down the
fallopian tube.
When it forms a
ball of cells, it is called a morula.
mosaicism
The presence of 2 or more
groups of cells containing different
genetic material within one person.
Some people with syndromes caused
by
chromosomal abnormalities
(such as
Down's syndrome
and
Turner's syn-
drome
)
have mosaicism. Depending on
the proportion of abnormal cells and
the type of abnormality, they range from
looking physically normal to having fea-
tures typical of the syndrome.
mosquito bites
Mosquitoes are flying
insects found throughout the world.
The females bite humans or animals to
obtain blood, which they need to pro-
duce eggs. The males do not bite. A
doctor should be consulted if there is a
severe skin reaction to a mosquito bite.
As well as being irritating, mosquito
bites can also transmit diseases. The
main disease-transmitting mosquitoes
belong to 3 groups:
ANOPHELES
(which
transmits
malaria),
aedes
(which carries
yellow
fever), and
culex
(which trans-
mits
filariasis).
375
previous page 373 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 375 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off