MUSCULAR SYSTEM
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
muscles of the hands, face, neck, and
feet, and causes
learning difficulties.
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy mainly
affects muscles in the hips and shoul-
ders, and facioscapulohumeral muscular
dystrophy affects muscles in the upper
arms, shoulder girdle, and face. In this
last form, severe disability is rare.
A diagnosis for Duchenne muscular
dystrophy can be made with gene test-
ing before symptoms develop. Once
muscle weakness develops other tests
become useful, including measurement
of muscle
enzymes
and an
EMG.
There is no cure, and
physiotherapy
is
the
main
treatment.
Remaining
as
active as possible keeps healthy mus-
cles in good condition. Surgery to the
heel
tendons
may assist walking in
some cases. The long-term outlook
depends on the particular form.
Families in which a child or adult has
developed any form of muscular dystro-
phy should receive
genetic counselling.
muscular system
The muscles of the
body that are attached to the
skeleton.
These muscles are responsible for vol-
untary movement, and also support and
stabilize the skeleton. In most cases, a
muscle attaches to a bone (usually by
means of a
tendon
) and crosses over a
joint to attach to another bone. Muscles
can produce movement by contracting
and shortening to pull on the bone
to which they are attached. They can
only pull, not push, and are therefore
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Extensor
of fingers
Internal
oblique of
abdomen
Iliopsoas
Gracilis
Gastrocnemius
Short extensor
of great toe
Abductor of
great toe
Occipitofrontal
Smaller
pectoral
External
Erector
oblique of
of spine
abdomen
Gluteus
Quadrate
of thigh
Gluteus
maximus
Biceps of
thigh
Soleus
Achilles
tendon
Short
extensor
of toes
Semispinalis of head
Splenius of head
Rectus of
abdomen
Triceps
of arm
Ulnar
extensor
of wrist
Sartorius
Rectus
of thigh
Medial
vastus
Anterior
tibial
Long flexor
of to e ____
Orbicular
of eye
External
intercostal
Deltoid
Internal
intercostal
Greater
pectoral
Deep
flexor of
fingers
Biceps
of arm
Platysma
Trapezius
Infraspinous
Deltoid
Great
Adductor
Semi-
membranous
Dorsal
interosseous
of foot
Temporoparietal
Sternocleidomastoid
FRONT VIEW
BACK VIEW
382
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