MYOCARDITIS
MYOPIA
diabetes meJUitus
.
Atherosclerosis
of the
coronary arteries is usually a factor.
Symptoms include sudden pain in the
centre of the chest, breathlessness,
feeling restless, clammy skin, nausea
and/or vomiting, or loss of conscious-
ness. Myocardial infarction may cause
immediate
heart failure
or
arrhythmias
.
Diagnosis is made from the patient's
history and tests including
ECG
and
measurement of
enzymes
released into
the blood from damaged heart muscle.
A myocardial infarction is a medical
emergency. Initial treatment may include
aspirin
,
thrombolytic drugs
,
analgesic
drugs
,
and
oxygen therapy
.
Diuretic
drugs
,
intravenous
infusion
of fluids,
antiarrhythmic drugs
,
and
beta-blocker
drugs
may also be given. Electrical
defibrillation
may be used to control
severe arrhythmias.
After recovery, preventive measures
such as taking more exercise, losing
weight, stopping smoking, and dietary
changes are recommended.
Statin
drugs
are usually given to lower blood
choles-
terol
; aspirin or
beta-blocker drugs
are
given to reduce the risk of further attacks.
myocarditis
Inflammation of the
heart
muscle, usually due to infection by the
coxsackievirus. Myocarditis is a charac-
teristic feature of
rheumatic fever
.
There are often no symptoms. Rarely,
there may be a serious disturbance of
the heartbeat,
breathlessness,
chest
pain, and
heart failure
. In severe cases,
death may result from
cardiac arrest
.
Myocarditis may be suspected from
the patient's history and from a physical
examination. An
ECG
will show charac-
teristic abnormalities of the heartbeat.
Diagnosis
also
involves
echocardio-
graphy
and
blood tests
.
There is no specific treatment. Bed rest
is usually recommended and
cortico-
steroid drugs
may be prescribed.
myoclonus
Rapid and uncontrollable
jerking or spasm of one or more mus-
cles either at rest or during movement.
Myoclonus may be associated with a
muscular or nervous disorder. It also
occurs in healthy people, such as when
the limbs twitch before sleep.
myofascial pain syndrome
See
tem-
poromandibular joint syndrome
.
myoglobin
An oxygen-carrying pigment
that is present in muscles. It consists of
a combination of iron and protein. Myo-
globin stores oxygen, releasing it when
it is needed by the muscles. The pres-
ence of myoglobin in the urine is known
as myoglobinuria. Slight myoglobinuria
may occur during prolonged exercise.
Severe myoglobinuria is usually caused
by the release of myoglobin from a
large area of damaged muscle, and may
cause
kidney failure
.
myoma
A noncancerous muscle
tumour
.
myomectomy
Surgical removal
of a
myoma
. The term
is also used to
describe the surgical removal of
fibroids
from the uterus.
myopathy
A disease of
muscle
that is
not caused by disease of the nervous
system. A myopathy may be an inherited
disorder, such as
muscular dystrophy
; it
may also be caused by chemical poison-
ing, a chronic disorder of the
immune
system
,
or a
metabolic disorder
.
myopia
An error of
refraction
in which
objects seen in the distance appear
blurred. Commonly called shortsighted-
ness, myopia is caused by the eye being
too long from front to back. As a result,
images of distant objects are focused in
front of the retina.
MYOPIA
386
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