NANDROLONE
NASAL POLYP
Possible adverse effects include nausea,
vomiting, and tremors.
nandrolone An anabolic steroid (see
steroids, anabolic)
used to treat certain
types of
anaemia
.
Possible side effects include swollen
ankles and
jaundice
. Nandrolone may
cause difficulty in passing urine in men,
and irregular menstruation and abnor-
mal hair growth in women.
nappy rash Common skin inflamma-
tion in babies that is caused by irritant
substances in urine or faeces. Occa-
sionally, the inflammation is severe.
An ointment containing a mild
cortico-
steroid drug
may be prescribed to
suppress the inflammation.
naproxen A
nonsteroidal anti-inflamma-
tory drug
(NSAID). Naproxen is used to
relieve joint pain and stiffness in
arthri-
tis
; it is also prescribed to hasten
recovery following injury to soft tissues,
such as muscles or ligaments.
Possible adverse effects include nausea,
abdominal pain, and
peptic ulcer
.
narcissism Intense self-love. A narcis-
sistic personality disorder is characterized
by an exaggerated sense of self-impor-
tance, constant need for attention or
praise, inability to cope with criticism
or defeat, and poor relationships with
other people.
narcolepsy A sleep disorder character-
ized by chronic daytime sleepiness with
recurrent episodes of sleep occurring
throughout the day. Attacks may last
from a few seconds to more than an
hour.
Cataplexy
(sudden loss of muscle
tone without loss of consciousness)
occurs in about
3
quarters of cases. Other
symptoms may include
sleep paralysis
and hallucinations. In narcolepsy, the
REM (rapid eye movement) state of
sleep is entered into abnormally rapidly.
Narcolepsy is often inherited. Treat-
ment usually involves regular naps,
along with
stimulant drugs
to control
drowsiness, and
antidepressant drugs
to
suppress cataplexy.
narcosis A state
of
stupor,
usually
caused by a drug (see
opioid drugs
) or
some other chemical. Narcosis resem-
bles sleep but, unlike someone who is
sleeping, a person in narcosis cannot
be roused completely.
narcotic
drugs See
opioid analgesic
drugs.
nasal congestion Partial blockage of
the nasal passage caused by swelling
of the
mucous membrane
that lines the
nose. Nasal congestion is sometimes
accompanied by the accumulation of
thick nasal mucus.
Nasal congestion is a symptom of the
common
cold
and of hay fever (see
rhinitis, allergic
); it may also be caused
by certain drugs. The swelling may
become persistent in disorders such as
chronic
sinusitis
or
nasal polyps.
Steam inhalation can help to loosen
the mucus. This involves placing the
head over a basin of hot water, possibly
with the addition of aromatic oils such
as menthol or eucalyptus, and inhaling
the steam for several minutes.
Decon-
gestant drugs
in the form of drops and
sprays should be used sparingly; tablets
and syrups may be recommended for
long-term use. Persistent nasal conges-
tion should be investigated by a doctor.
nasal discharge The emission of fluid
from the
nose
. Nasal discharge is com-
monly caused by inflammation of the
mucous membrane lining the nose and
is often accompanied by
nasal congestion.
A discharge of mucus may indicate
allergic
rhinitis
, a cold, or an infection
that has spread from the sinuses (see
sinusitis
). A persistent runny discharge
may be an early indication of a tumour
(see
nasopharynx, cancer of).
Bleeding from the nose (see
nose-
bleed)
is usually caused by injury or a
foreign body in the nose. A discharge of
cerebrospinal fluid from the nose may
follow a fracture at the base of the skull.
nasal obstruction Blockage of the nasal
passage on 1 or both sides of the
nose.
The most common cause of nasal
obstruction is inflammation of the
muc-
ous membrane
lining the passage (see
nasal congestion).
Other causes include
deviation of the
nasal septum
, nasal
pol-
yps
, a
haematoma
(a collection of clotted
blood) usually caused by injury, and,
rarely, a cancerous tumour. In children,
enlargement of the
adenoids
is the most
common cause of nasal obstruction.
nasal polyp A growth in the lining of the
nose
, usually attached by a small stalk.
N
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