NEEDLESTICK INJURY
NEPHROLITHOTOMY
N
new, sterile ones. The scheme is aimed
at reducing the risks of infections, such
as
HIV
and
hepatitis,
transmitted by the
sharing of contaminated needles.
needlestick injury Accidental puncture
of the skin by a contaminated hypoder-
mic needle. Hospital staff are most likely
to be at risk. Needlestick injuries carry
the risk of serious infections, such as
HIV
and
hepatitis
, and need immediate
attention. The wound should be cleaned
thoroughly; blood tests may be needed
to determine whether infection has
been transmitted.
nefopam An
analgesic drug
used to
relieve moderate pain caused, for exam-
ple, by injury, surgery, or cancer. Possible
adverse effects include nausea, nervous-
ness, dry mouth, and difficulty sleeping.
Nelson's syndrome A rare disorder of
the
endocrine
system
that
causes
increased skin pigmentation. Nelson's
syndrome results from enlargement of
the
pituitary gland
, which can follow
removal of the
adrenal glands
(a treat-
ment for
Cushing's syndrome).
Nelson's
syndrome
is
treated
by
hypophysectomy
(removal or destruc-
tion of the pituitary gland).
nematodes The scientific name for a
group of cylindrically shaped worms
(
roundworms
), some of which can be
parasites of humans.
neologism The act of making up new
words that have a special meaning for
the inventor. The term also refers to the
invented words themselves. Persistent
neologism can be a feature of speech in
people with
schizophrenia
.
neomycin An
antibiotic drug
used in the
treatment of ear, eye, and skin infections,
often in combination with other drugs.
Neomycin is sometimes given to pre-
vent infection of the intestine prior to
surgery. Possible adverse effects include
rash and itching.
neonate A newly born infant, under the
age of 1 month (see
newborn).
neonatology The branch of
paediatrics
concerned with the care of
newborn
infants and the treatment of disorders
during the first few weeks of life.
neoplasia A medical term for
tumour
formation. The term neoplasia does not
necessarily imply that the new growth is
cancerous
; neoplasia also results in
tumours that are
noncancerous
.
neoplasm A medical term for a
tumour
(any new abnormal growth). Neoplasms
may be
cancerous
or
noncancerous
.
neostigmine A drug that is used to treat
myasthenia gravis
(a rare autoimmune
disorder that causes muscle weakness).
Neostigmine increases the activity of
acetylcholine
, a
neurotransmitter
that
stimulates the contraction of muscles.
Possible adverse effects of neostigmine
include nausea and vomiting, increased
salivation, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea,
blurred vision, muscle cramps, sweating,
and twitching.
nephrectomy Surgical removal of 1 or
both of the
kidneys.
One of the most common reasons for
nephrectomy is to remove a cancerous
tumour (see
kidney cancer
). A kidney may
also be removed if it is not functioning
normally due to injury, infection, or the
presence of stones (see
calculus
,
urinary
tract
), or if it is causing severe
hyperten-
sion
(high blood pressure).
On removal of a single kidney the re-
maining kidney takes over the workload.
If both kidneys are removed, the patient
requires
dialysis
or a
kidney transplant.
nephritis Inflammation of 1 or both
kid-
neys
. Nephritis may be caused by an
infection (see
pyelonephritis
), abnormal
responses of the
immune system
(see
glomerulonephritis
), or metabolic disor-
ders, such as gout.
nephroblastoma See
kidney cancer
.
nephrocalcinosis Deposits of calcium
within the tissue of 1 or both
kidneys
.
Nephrocalcinosis is not the same as
kidney stones (see
calculus, urinary tract
),
in which calcium particles develop in-
side the drainage channels of the kidney.
Nephrocalcinosis may occur in any
condition in which the level of calcium
in the blood is raised. It may also occur
as a result of taking excessive amounts
of certain
antacid drugs
or
vitamin D
.
Treatment is of the underlying cause to
prevent further calcification.
nephrolithotomy The surgical removal
of a
calculus
(stone) from the
kidney
.
Nephrolithotomy may be performed
through an abdominal incision, or via
a puncture incision in the back. Large
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