NOMA
NONSTEROIDAL
NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
^
S E
|
"
^
^
SOURCE OF NOISE
RISK OF NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS
0
N
the ears) occurring after a noise has
ceased is an indication that some dam-
age has probably occurred.
noma
The death of tissue in the lips and
cheeks due to bacterial infection. Also
called cancrum oris, it is largely confined
to young, severely malnourished children
in developing countries. Noma can also
occur in the last stages of
leukaemia.
Without treatment, noma causes severe
ulceration, eventual destruction of the
bones around the mouth, and loss of
teeth. Healing occurs naturally, but
scarring may be severe.
Antibacterial drugs
and improved nutri-
tion halt the progress of the disease.
nonaccidental injury
See
chUd abuse.
nongonococcal
urethritis
Formerly
known as nonspecific urethritis, inflam-
mation of the urethra due to a cause
other than gonorrhoea. Worldwide, non-
gonococcal urethritis is a very common
type of sexually transmitted infection.
Almost 50 per cent of cases are known
to be caused by chlamydia trachomatis
(see
chlamydial infections
); others are
caused by the virus that causes
herpes
simplex
, trichomonas vaginalis infections
(see
trichomoniasis
), or other microor-
ganisms. In the remainder of cases, the
cause remains unknown.
In men, the infection usually causes a
clear or a purulent urethral discharge,
often accompanied by pain or discom-
fort on passing urine. The equivalent
condition in women, called nonspecific
genital infection, may not cause symp-
toms unless there are complications.
Treatment may be difficult if the cause
of symptoms cannot be determined.
Antibiotic drugs
, such as doxycycline
and erythromycin, are given. Follow-up
visits may be advised after treatment.
In men,
epididymitis, prostatitis
and
ure-
thral stricture
(narrowing of the urethra)
can occur as complications of nongono-
coccal urethritis.
Reiter's syndrome
(in
which there is arthritis and conjunctivi-
tis as well as urethritis) occurs as a
complication in some men who develop
nongonococcal urethritis.
In women,
pelvic inflammatory disease
and cysts of the
Bartholin's glands
may
occur.
Ophthalmia
neonatorum, a type
of conjunctivitis, sometimes develops
in babies born to women with chlamy-
dial cervicitis.
noninvasive
A term used to describe
any medical procedure that does not
involve penetration of the skin or entry
into the body through any of the natural
openings. Examples include
CT scan-
ning
and
echocardiography
. The term
noninvasive is sometimes also applied
to noncancerous tumours that do not
spread throughout body tissues.
nonoxinol
9
A
spermicide
used in con-
traceptive preparations such as gels,
foams, and creams.
nonspecific urethritis
See
nongono-
coccal urethritis.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
A group of drugs, also known as NSAIDs
that produce
analgesia
(pain relief) and
reduce inflammation in joints and soft
tissues such as muscles and ligaments.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
are widely used to relieve symptoms
caused by types of arthritis, such as
rheumatoid arthritis
,
osteoarthritis
, and
gout
. They do not cure or halt the
progress of disease. NSAIDs are also
used in the treatment of back pain,
404
previous page 402 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 404 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off