ORAL SYRINGE
ORGAN DONATION
impaction,
dental)
and
alveolectomy.
More complicated oral surgery includes
orthognathic surgery
to correct deformi-
ties of the jaw; repair of a broken jaw;
plastic surgery to correct
cleft lip and
palate;
and the removal of some non-
cancerous tumours from the mouth.
oral syringe A device used to administer
liquid medicines by mouth, especially to
young children. Small, accurately mea-
sured doses of the drug are drawn into
the syringe via a plunger and squirted
on to the inside of the cheek.
Syringe angled
so that tip is
towards cheek
ORAL SYRINGE
USING AN ORAL SYRINGE
orbit
The socket in the
skull
containing
the eyeball, protective fat, blood ves-
sels, muscles, and nerves. The
optic
nerve
passes into the
brain
through an
opening in the back of the orbit.
A severe blow to the face may fracture
the orbit, but the eyeball is often
undamaged as it can move back into the
socket.
Fractures often heal without
treatment, but some cause deformity
and require corrective surgery. Rarely,
bacterial infection spreads from a
sinus
or the face to cause
orbital cellulitis.
orbital cellulitis Bacterial infection of
the tissues within the eye socket, or
orbit.
Infection is potentially serious as
it may spread to the
brain.
Treatment is
with high doses of
antibiotic drugs.
orchidectomy The surgical removal of
one or both of the
testes.
Orchidectomy
may be performed for testicular cancer
(see
testis, cancer
of) or gangrene due to
torsion (see
testis, torsion
of), or to
reduce production of
testosterone
in the
treatment of cancer of the prostate
gland (see
prostate, cancer of
). Removal
of one testis does not affect sex drive,
potency, or the ability to have children.
orchidopexy An
operation
to
bring
down an undescended testis (see
testis,
undescended)
into the scrotum. Orchi-
dopexy is usually performed at age 2-5
to reduce the risk of later
infertility
or
testicular cancer (see
testis, cancer of
).
orchitis
Inflammation of a
testis.
Orchitis
may be caused by the
mumps
virus, par-
ticularly if infection occurs after puberty.
Swelling and severe pain in the affected
testis are accompanied by high fever. In
epidid}m.o-orchitis,
the tube that carries
sperm from the testis is also inflamed.
Treatment is with
analgesic drugs
and
ice-packs
to reduce swelling;
antibiotic
drugs
may be given, but not for mumps
orchitis. The condition usually begins
to subside within 7 days but is occasion-
ally followed by shrinking of the testis,
orf
A skin infection occasionally transmit-
ted to humans from sheep. Caused by a
pox
virus, orf usually produces a single
persistent, fluid-filled blister on the arm
or hand. The antiviral drug idoxuridine
may hasten recovery. Large
lesions
may
be removed surgically,
organ
A collection of various
tissues
integrated into a distinct structural unit
to perform specific functions. For exam-
ple, the brain consists of nerve tissue
and support tissue organized to receive,
process, and send out information.
organ donation The agreement of a
person (or his or her family) to surgical
removal of one or more organs for use in
transplant surgery
. Most organs for trans-
plantation, such as the heart, lungs, liver,
and kidneys, are removed immediately
after death, often in intensive care units
where heart and lung function is some-
times maintained by machine after
brain
death
been certified. Compatible living
donors may also be able to give a kidney
(see
tissue-typing).
People can facilitate
use of their organs after death by inform-
ing relatives and carrying a donor card.
(See also
corneal graft; heart-lung trans-
plant
;
heart transplant
;
heart-valve surgery
;
kidney transplant; liver transplant.)
418
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