ANTIPYRETIC DRUGS
ANTIVIRAL DRUGS
Other possible side effects include dry
mouth, blurred vision, and difficulty in
passing urine. However, newer drugs
may have fewer side effects when used
in the long term.
antipyretic drugs
Drugs that reduce
fever. Examples of antipyretic drugs
include
paracetamol, aspirin,
and other
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
antiretroviral drugs
Drugs that are
used to slow or halt the spread of
viruses in people with
HIV
infection
and
AIDS.
There are 3 main groups:
reverse transcriptase inhibitors, pro-
tease inhibitors, and non-nucleoside
reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Drugs
from different groups are often used in
combination. Antiretroviral drugs can
have a range of side effects, including
nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, tiredness,
and a range of effects on blood chem-
istry, particularly involving fats.
antirheumatic drugs
A group of drugs
used to treat
rheumatoid arthritis
and
types of arthritis that are caused by
other
autoimmune disorders
such as
systemic
lupus erythematosus
. Antirheu-
matic drugs affect the disease process
and may limit joint damage, unlike
non-
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
, which
only relieve pain and stiffness. The
main antirheumatic drugs are
cortico-
steroid drugs
,
immunosuppressant drugs
,
chloroquine
,
gold
,
penicillamine
, and
sul-
fasalazine
. Many of these drugs can have
serious side effects, and treatment must
be under specialist supervision.
antiseptics
Chemicals applied to the
skin in order to destroy bacteria and
other microorganisms, thereby prevent-
ing infection. Common antiseptics are
chlorhexidine
,
cetrimide
,
hexachloroph-
ene,
and compounds containing
iodine.
(See also
disinfectants
;
aseptic technique
.)
antiserum
A preparation containing
anti-
bodies
(also known as
immunoglobulins
)
that combine with specific
antigens
(for-
eign proteins), usually components of
microorganisms, leading to deactivation
or destruction of the microorganisms.
Antiserum is usually used, along with
immunization
, as an emergency treat-
ment when someone has been exposed
to a dangerous infection such as
rabies
and has not previously been immunized.
antisocial personality disorder
Imp-
ulsive, destructive behaviour that often
disregards the feelings and rights of
others. People who have an antisocial
personality lack a sense of guilt and
cannot tolerate frustration. They may
have problems with relationships and
are frequently in trouble with the law.
Behaviour therapy,
and various forms of
psychotherapy,
may help to improve
integration. In general, the effects of
this disorder decrease with age.
antispasmodic drugs
A group of drugs
that relax spasm in smooth muscle in
the wall of the intestine or bladder.
These drugs are used to treat
irritable
bow el syndrome
and
irritable bladder.
Possible side effects include dry mouth,
blurred vision, and difficulty in passing
urine. (See also
anticholinergic drugs.)
antithyroid drugs
Drugs used to treat
hyperthyroidism
, in which the thyroid
gland is overactive. They may be used
as the sole treatment or before thyroid
surgery.
Carbimazole
and
propylthiour-
acil
interfere with the production of
thyroid hormone by the gland.
antitoxin
Any of a variety of commer-
cially prepared substances containing
antibodies
that can combine with and
neutralize the effect of a specific
toxin
released into the bloodstream by par-
ticular bacteria. Antitoxins are usually
given by injection into a muscle. Occa-
sionally, an antitoxin may cause an
allergic reaction (see
allergy
).
antitussive drugs
Drugs that suppress
or relieve a
cough
(see
cough rem edies
).
antivenom
A specific treatment for bites
or stings inflicted by venomous animals
such as snakes, spiders, and scorpions.
Antivenoms are given by intravenous in-
jection and may cause allergic reactions.
antiviral drugs
Drugs used in the
treatment of infection by
viruses.
No
drugs have been developed that can
eradicate viruses, and at present
immu-
nization
is the most effective way of
preventing serious viral infections.
However, antiviral drugs can reduce
the severity of some viral infections
(most notably
herpes
,
influenza
, viral
hepatitis
,
and
cytomegalovirus
infec-
tions), particularly in people who have
reduced immunity. Advances have also
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