PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE
PENICILLAMINE
P
recurrent pelvic infection is referred to
as
pelvic inflammatory disease
(PID).
pelvic inflammatory disease An infec-
tion of the internal female reproductive
organs. Pelvic inflammatory disease (or
PID) may not have any obvious cause,
but may occur as a result of a sexually
transmitted infection, such as
gonor-
rhoea
, or after a
miscarriage
, an abortion,
or
childbirth.
An
IUD
increases the risk
of infection. PID may cause
infertility
or
increase the risk of
ectopic pregnancy
.
Common symptoms include abdominal
pain and tenderness, fever, and irregu-
lar menstrual periods. Pain often occurs
after menstruation and may be worse
during intercourse. There may also be
malaise, vomiting, or backache. A diag-
nosis is usually made by an internal
pelvic examination
, examination of swabs
to look for infection, and a
laparoscopy
.
Antibiotic drugs
and sometimes
anal-
gesic drugs
are prescribed. An IUD may
need to be removed.
pelvic pain See
abdominal pain.
pelvimetry Assessment of the shape
and dimensions of a woman's pelvis by
making measurements on an
X-ray
image. Pelvimetry may be carried out to
determine whether a woman is likely
to have difficulty in delivering a baby
vaginally. The procedure may also be
performed after a vaginal delivery has
been unsuccessful, to assist in planning
a future pregnancy.
pelvis The ring of bones in the lower
trunk consisting of
2
innominate (hip)
bones, which are joined to the
sacrum
at
the back and the pubic
symphysis
at the
front. Each hip bone consists of 3 fused
bones: the ilium (the largest and upper-
most), ischium (which bears much of
the body weight when sitting), and
pubis (the smallest).
In women, the pelvis is generally shal-
low and broad, and the pubic symphysis
joint is less rigid than a man's. These
differences facilitate childbirth. In men,
the greater body weight needs a larger
and more heavily built pelvis.
pemphigoid An uncommon chronic skin
disease, mainly affecting elderly people,
in which large, sometimes itchy, blisters
form on the skin. Pemphigoid is thought
to be an
autoimmune disorder
. Diagnosis
is made with a skin
biopsy
, and treatment
is usually a long-term course of
cortico-
steroid
or
immunosuppressant drugs.
pemphigus A rare, serious skin disease
in which
blisters
develop on the skin
and in the mouth. Pemphigus primarily
affects people aged 40-60. The blisters
usually develop in the mouth, before
appearing on the skin and then ruptur-
ing to form raw areas that may become
infected and later crust over. Skin that
appears unaffected may also blister
after gentle pressure is applied. If a
large area of the body is affected, severe
skin loss can lead to bacterial infection
and, sometimes, death.
The diagnosis is confirmed by a skin
biopsy
. Treatment is with a long-term
course of
corticosteroid drugs
and, some-
times,
immunosuppressants
.
Antibiotics
may also be prescribed.
penicillamine An
antirheumatic drug
sometimes used to treat
rheumatoid
Ilium
Sacrum
Pubis
Ischium
PELVIS
MALE PELVIS
Pelvic
inlet
Pubic
symphysis
Wider, more
circular
pelvic inlet
Coccyx
FEMALE PELVIS
438
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