PENICILLIN DRUGS
PEPTIC ULCER
arthritis.
Penicillamine is also used to
treat copper, mercury, lead, or arsenic
poisoning;
Wilson's disease;
and primary
biliary cirrhosis.
The possible adverse effects of peni-
cillamine can include allergic rashes,
itching, nausea, vomiting, abdominal
pain, loss of taste, blood disorders, and
impaired kidney function.
penicillin drugs A group of
antibiotic
drugs.
Natural penicillins are derived
from the mould
pen icilliu m
;
others are
synthetic preparations. Penicillins are
used to treat many infective conditions,
including
tonsillitis
,
bronchitis
, bacterial
endocarditis, syphilis,
and
pneumonia.
They are also given to prevent
rheumatic
fever
from recurring. Common adverse
effects of penicillins are an allergic reac-
tion causing a rash, and diarrhoea.
penile implant A
prosthesis
inserted
into the
penis
to help a man suffering
from permanent
impotence
to achieve
intercourse. The various types include a
silicone splint inserted in the tissues of
the upper surface of the penis, and an
inflatable prosthesis that is inflated by
squeezing a small bulb in the scrotum.
penile warts See
warts, genital.
penis The male sex organ through which
urine
and
semen
pass. The penis consists
mainly of 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile
tissue (spongy tissue full of blood ves-
sels) that run along its length. Two of
these bodies, the corpora cavernosa, lie
side by side along the upper part of the
penis. The 3rd body, the corpus spon-
giosum, lies centrally beneath them and
expands at the end to form the
glans
.
Through the centre of the corpus spon-
giosum runs the
urethra
, a narrow tube
that carries urine and semen out of the
body through an opening at the tip of
the glans. Around the erectile tissue is a
sheath consisting of fibrous connective
tissue enclosed by skin. Over the glans,
the skin forms a fold called the
foreskin.
penis, cancer of A rare type of cancer-
ous tumour that is more common in
uncircumcised men with poor personal
hygiene. Viral infection and smoking
have both been shown to be additional
risk factors. The tumour usually starts
on the
glans
or on the foreskin as a
painless, wart-like lump or a painful
ulcer, and develops into a cauliflower-
like mass. The growth usually spreads
slowly, but in some cases it can spread
to the
lymph nodes
in the groin within a
few months.
Diagnosis is made by a
biopsy
. If the
tumour is detected early,
radiotherapy
is
usually successful. Otherwise, removal of
part or all of the penis may be necessary.
pentamidine An antiprotozoal drug (see
protozoa
), administered by intravenous
infusion or nebulizer to prevent and
treat
pneumocystis pneumonia
in immu-
nosuppressed people. Pentamidine is
also used to treat the tropical disease
leishmaniasis
. Side effects may include
nausea and vomiting, dizziness, flush-
ing, rash, and taste disturbances.
pentazocine An opioid
analgesic drug
used to relieve moderate or severe pain
caused by injury, surgery, cancer, or
childbirth. It is rarely used because of
its adverse affects, which include dizzi-
ness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and,
rarely, hallucinations.
Drug dependence
may develop if high doses are taken for
prolonged periods.
peppermint oil An oil obtained from
the peppermint plant
m entha piperita
.
It
is prescribed to relieve abdominal colic
but may cause heartburn. Peppermint
oil is also used as a flavouring in some
drug preparations.
peptic ulcer A raw area that develops
in the gastrointestinal tract as a result
of erosion by acidic gastric juice; it
most commonly occurs in the stomach
or the
1
st part of the
duodenum.
The major cause of peptic ulcers is
Helicobacter pylori
bacterial infection,
which can damage the lining of the stom-
ach and duodenum, allowing the acid
stomach contents to attack it.
Analgesic
drugs,
alcohol, excess acid production,
and smoking can also damage the
stomach lining. Ulcers can also form in
the
oesophagus
, when acidic juice from
the stomach enters it (see
acid reflux
),
and in the duodenum.
There may be no symptoms, or there
may be burning or gnawing pain in the
upper abdomen. Other possible symp-
toms include loss of appetite, nausea,
and vomiting. The ulcer may also bleed.
If severe, it may result in haematemesis
P
439
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