PHARYNGEAL POUCH
PHENYLKETONURIA
P
pharyngeal pouch See
oesophageal di-
verticulum.
pharyngitis Acute or chronic inflam-
mation of the
pharynx,
causing a sore
throat. Causes of pharyngitis include viral
and bacterial infections. Swallowing sub-
stances that scald, corrode, or scratch
the lining of the throat, and smoking,
may also cause pharyngitis.
As well as a sore throat, there may
be discomfort when swallowing, slight
fever, earache, and swollen
lymph nodes
in the neck.
Gargling with warm salt water and tak-
ing
analgesic drugs
is usually the only
treatment needed. If the sore throat is
severe or prolonged a doctor may take a
throat
swab
and prescribe
antibiotic drugs
.
pharynx The passage that connects the
back of the mouth and nose to the
oeso-
phagus
. The upper part, or
nasopharynx
,
connects the nasal cavity to the area
behind the soft
palate
. The middle part,
the oropharynx, runs from the naso-
pharynx to below the tongue. The lower
part, called the laryngopharynx, lies
behind and to each side of the
larynx
.
pharynx, cancer of A cancerous tumour
of the
pharynx
. Pharyngeal cancer usu-
ally develops in the
mucous membrane
lining. In the West, almost all cases of
pharyngeal cancer are related to smoking
and to drinking alcohol. The incidence
rises with age, and the disorder is more
common in men.
Cancerous tumours of the oropharynx
(the middle section of the pharynx) usu-
ally cause difficulty swallowing, often
with a sore throat and earache. Blood-
stained sputum may be coughed up.
Sometimes there is only the feeling of a
lump in the throat or a visible enlarged
lymph node
in the neck. Cancer of the
laryngopharynx (the lowermost part of
the pharynx) initially causes a sensation
of incomplete swallowing, then a muf-
fled voice, hoarseness, and increased
difficulty in swallowing. Tumours of the
nasopharynx
have different causes.
Diagnosis of cancer of the pharynx is
made by
biopsy
, often in conjunction
with
laryngoscopy
,
bronchoscopy
, or
oeso-
phagoscopy
. The growth may be removed
surgically or treated with
radiotherapy
.
Anticancer drugs
may also be given.
phencyclidine A drug of abuse, com-
monly known as angel dust or PCP.
phenelzine A monoamine oxidase inhib-
itor
antidepressant drug
usually given
when other antidepressant drugs are
ineffective. Possible side effects include
dizziness, drowsiness, and rash, and,
when taken with certain foods or other
drugs, a dangerous rise in blood pressure.
phenobarbital A
barbiturate drug
used
mainly as an
anticonvulsant
. It is often
used with
phenytoin
to treat
epilepsy
.
Possible side effects include drowsi-
ness, clumsiness, dizziness, excitement,
and confusion.
phenothiazine drugs A group of drugs
used to treat psychotic illnesses (see
antipsychotic drugs
) and to relieve severe
nausea and vomiting (see
antiemetic
drugs
). The group includes
chlorpro-
mazine
, fluphenazine, and perphenazine.
phenoxymethylpenicillin A synthetic
penicillin drug
, which is an
antibiotic
prescribed to treat bacterial infections
including pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and
tooth abscess.
Possible adverse effects include rash
and nausea. A few people develop a
serious allergic reaction in which there
is wheezing, breathing difficulty, and
swelling around the mouth and eyes.
phenylbutazone A
nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drug
(NSAID) used to
relieve the symptoms of
ankylosing
spondylitis
. Phenylbutazone may cause
nausea, fluid retention, rash, and
peptic
ulcer
. It may also increase the risk of
blood disorders
. It is prescribed only
under hospital supervision, when other
drugs are ineffective.
phenylephrine A
decongestant
drug
used to treat seasonal allergic
rhinitis
(hay fever) and the common
cold
. As
eye-drops, it is used to dilate the pupils
for eye examinations. High doses or pro-
longed use of nasal preparations may
cause headache and blurred vision;
stopping taking the drug suddenly may
make nasal congestion worse.
phenylketonuria An inherited disorder
in which the
enzyme
that converts the
amino acid
phenylalanine into tyrosine
(another amino acid) is defective. Unless
phenylalanine is excluded from the diet,
it builds up in the body and causes
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