include fainting, lack of energy, chest
pain on exertion due to
Chest X-ray, ECG,
may be carried out to diagnose
aortic stenosis. A cardiac catheter can
be used to demonstrate the degree of
may be needed to
widen or replace the damaged valve.
Inflammation of the
main artery of the body). Aortitis is a
rare condition that occurs in people
some people with
Aortitis may cause part of the aorta to
widen and its walls to become thinner.
This may lead to an
ing of the artery). Aortitis may damage
the ring around the aortic valve in the
heart, leading to
aortic incom petence
An imaging technique that
(the main artery of the
body) and its branches to be seen clear-
ly on X-ray film following injection of a
(a substance that is
opaque to X-rays). Aortography is used
if surgery is needed to treat an
(ballooning of the aorta).
The uppermost surface of a struc-
ture, for example the top, end, or tip of
an organ such as a lung or the heart.
A normal hearbeat felt
through the chest wall. As the heart con-
tracts, its tip hits the chest wall and can
be felt between the 5th and 6th ribs on
the left side of the chest. The apex beat
is displaced when the heart is enlarged.
A system designed to
assess the condition of a newborn baby.
Five features are scored 1
again 5 minutes after birth. These are
breathing, heart-rate, colour, muscle
tone, and response to stimulation.
The absence of the
the eye. Aphakia may be congenital,
may result from surgery (for example,
), or may be due to a
penetrating injury. Aphakia causes sev-
ere loss of focusing in the affected eye
and requires correction by implanting a
lens or with contact lenses or glasses.
A complete absence of previ-
ously acquired language skills, caused
by a brain disorder that affects the abil-
ity to speak and write, and/or the ability
to comprehend and read. Related dis-
abilities that may occur in aphasia are
(word blindness) and
Language function in the brain lies in
the dominant cerebral hemisphere (see
Two particular areas in this
areas, and the pathways connecting the
two, are important in language skills.
Damage to these areas, which most
commonly occurs as a result of stroke
or head injury, can lead to aphasia.
Some recovery from aphasia is usual
although the more severe the aphasia,
the less the chances of recovery.
is the main treatment. (See also
A procedure in which blood
is withdrawn from a donor and is re-
infused after one or more selected
components have been separated and
removed. In plasmapheresis, antibodies
that are causing a disease are removed;
and in leukapher-
cells are removed.
loss of the voice,
from surgery to the
, or it may
be sudden in onset
and due to emo-
tional stress. (See
substance that is
Below 100 beats
Over 100 beats
Weak cry; irregular
Strong cry; regular
Blue extrem ities