PROCAINE
PROGUANIL
tachycardia.
Procainamide may cause
nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and,
rarely, confusion. Prolonged treatment
may induce
lupus erythematosus.
procaine A local anaesthetic (see
an-
aesthesia,
local).
procarbazine An
anticancer drug
used
most often in
Hodgkin's disease.
Side
effects are typical of anticancer drugs.
prochlorperazine A
phenothiazine-type
antipsychotic drug
used to relieve symp-
toms of certain psychiatric disorders,
such as
schizophrenia
and
mania.
It is
also used in small doses as an
antiemetic
drug
. It may cause involuntary move-
ments of the face and limbs, lethargy,
dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness.
procidentia A medical term for severe
prolapse
, usually of the uterus.
proctalgia
fugax A severe cramping
pain in the
rectum
unconnected with any
disease. It may be due to muscle spasm.
The pain is of short duration and sub-
sides without treatment.
proctitis Inflammation of the
rectum
,
causing soreness and bleeding, some-
times with a mucus and pus discharge.
Proctitis commonly occurs as a feature
of
ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease,
or
dysentery
. In cases where inflammation
is confined to the rectum, the cause is
often unknown. In male homosexuals,
proctitis is sometimes due to
gonor-
rhoea
or another sexually transmitted
infection. Rare causes include
tubercu-
losis, amoebiasis,
and
schistosomiasis.
Diagnosis is made by
proctoscopy.
A
biopsy
is sometimes needed. Treatment
of the underlying cause usually clears
the problem.
Corticosteroid drugs
may
relieve symptoms.
proctoscopy Examination of the
anus
and
rectum
with a proctoscope (a rigid
viewing instrument).
procyclidine An
anticholinergic
drug
used to treat
Parkinson's disease
and
minimize the side effects of some
anti-
psychotic drugs.
Possible adverse effects
include dry mouth and blurred vision.
prodrome An early warning symptom
of illness.
progeria Premature aging. There are 2
forms of progeria, and both are very rare.
In Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, the pre-
mature aging starts at about 4 years old,
and many features of old age, including
grey hair, balding, sagging skin, and
atherosclerosis
, have developed by age
10-12. Death usually occurs at puberty.
Werner's syndrome (adult progeria) starts
in adolescence or early adulthood and
follows the same progression. The cause
of progeria is unknown, although it is
known that the cells in affected people
reproduce far less frequently than those
in healthy people.
progesterone hormone A female sex
hormone essential for the functioning of
the female reproductive system. Proges-
terone is made in the
ovaries
, and small
amounts are produced by the
adrenal
glands
and
testes
. During the menstrual
cycle,
changing
progesterone
levels
cause thickening of the endometrium
and menstruation. If pregnancy occurs,
progesterone is produced by the
pla-
centa;
a fall in its level helps to initiate
labour
.
Progesterone
also
causes
increased fat deposition and increased
sebum
production by glands in the skin.
progestogen drugs A group of drugs
similar to
progesterone hormone
. The
drugs are used in
oral contraceptives
,
are prescribed to treat menstrual prob-
lems (see
menstruation, disorders
of),
and are included in
hormone replace-
ment therapy (HRT).
Progestogen drugs
are also used to treat
premenstrual syn-
drome
,
endometriosis
,
and
hypogonadism
, and are sometimes used
as
anticancer drugs.
Adverse effects
include weight gain,
oedema
, headache,
dizziness, rash, irregular periods, breast
tenderness, and
ovarian cysts.
prognathism Abnormal protrusion of
the lower jaw or both jaws.
prognosis An assessment of the proba-
ble course and outcome of a disease.
progressive A term used to describe a
condition that becomes more severe
and/or extensive over time.
progressive muscular atrophy A type
of
motor neuron disease
in which the
muscles of the hands, arms, and legs
become weak and wasted and twitch
involuntarily. The condition eventually
spreads to other muscles.
proguanil An antimalarial drug used in
the prevention of
malaria
. Side effects
are rare. Indigestion, nausea, or vomiting
P
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