Procainamide may cause
nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and,
rarely, confusion. Prolonged treatment
procaine A local anaesthetic (see
most often in
effects are typical of anticancer drugs.
used to relieve symp-
toms of certain psychiatric disorders,
also used in small doses as an
. It may cause involuntary move-
ments of the face and limbs, lethargy,
dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness.
procidentia A medical term for severe
, usually of the uterus.
fugax A severe cramping
pain in the
unconnected with any
disease. It may be due to muscle spasm.
The pain is of short duration and sub-
sides without treatment.
proctitis Inflammation of the
causing soreness and bleeding, some-
times with a mucus and pus discharge.
Proctitis commonly occurs as a feature
ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease,
. In cases where inflammation
is confined to the rectum, the cause is
often unknown. In male homosexuals,
proctitis is sometimes due to
or another sexually transmitted
infection. Rare causes include
Diagnosis is made by
is sometimes needed. Treatment
of the underlying cause usually clears
proctoscopy Examination of the
with a proctoscope (a rigid
used to treat
minimize the side effects of some
Possible adverse effects
include dry mouth and blurred vision.
prodrome An early warning symptom
progeria Premature aging. There are 2
forms of progeria, and both are very rare.
In Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, the pre-
mature aging starts at about 4 years old,
and many features of old age, including
grey hair, balding, sagging skin, and
, have developed by age
10-12. Death usually occurs at puberty.
Werner's syndrome (adult progeria) starts
in adolescence or early adulthood and
follows the same progression. The cause
of progeria is unknown, although it is
known that the cells in affected people
reproduce far less frequently than those
in healthy people.
progesterone hormone A female sex
hormone essential for the functioning of
the female reproductive system. Proges-
terone is made in the
, and small
amounts are produced by the
. During the menstrual
cause thickening of the endometrium
and menstruation. If pregnancy occurs,
progesterone is produced by the
a fall in its level helps to initiate
increased fat deposition and increased
production by glands in the skin.
progestogen drugs A group of drugs
drugs are used in
are prescribed to treat menstrual prob-
and are included in
ment therapy (HRT).
are also used to treat
, and are sometimes used
include weight gain,
dizziness, rash, irregular periods, breast
prognathism Abnormal protrusion of
the lower jaw or both jaws.
prognosis An assessment of the proba-
ble course and outcome of a disease.
progressive A term used to describe a
condition that becomes more severe
and/or extensive over time.
progressive muscular atrophy A type
motor neuron disease
in which the
muscles of the hands, arms, and legs
become weak and wasted and twitch
involuntarily. The condition eventually
spreads to other muscles.
proguanil An antimalarial drug used in
the prevention of
. Side effects
are rare. Indigestion, nausea, or vomiting