PROSTATECTOMY
PROSTHETICS, DENTAL
if above a certain level, it may indicate
prostate cancer
Rectal examination
allows
a doctor to assess the size and hardness
of the gland.
Ultrasound scanning
and a
biopsy
confirm the diagnosis.
Blood tests
and a bone scan (see
radionuclide scan-
ning)
may also be done. In an elderly man
with a small prostate cancer that has not
spread, no treatment may be recom-
mended. For younger men,
prostatectomy
or
radiotherapy
may be performed. Wide-
spread disease is usually controllable for
some years with
orchidectom y
or drugs,
prostatectomy An operation to remove
part or all of the
prostate gland.
It is
performed to treat enlargement of the
gland (see
prostate
,
enlarged),
cancer of
the prostate (see
prostate
,
cancer of),
or
prostatitis.
The most common method is
trans-urethral prostatectomy, performed
during
cystoscopy.
If the prostate gland is
very enlarged, retropubic prostatectomy
may be performed. An incision exposes
the prostate and the tissue is removed.
Prostatectomy may affect potency or sex-
ual sensation, though this is not common.
The operation usually causes sterility,
prostate, enlarged An increase in the
size of the inner zone of the
prostate
gland,
also known as benign prostatic
hypertrophy. It is most common in men
over 50. The cause is unknown. The
enlarging prostate compresses and dis-
torts the
urethra,
impeding the flow of
urine. Eventually the bladder is unable
to expel all the urine (see
urine reten-
tion)
and becomes distended, causing
abdominal swelling. There may also be
incontinence
and frequency of urination
(see
urination
,
frequent).
Prostate enlargement is detected by a
rectal examination.
Tests may include a
blood test,
ultrasound scanning, urogra-
phy,
and a recording of the strength of
urine flow. Mild cases do not require
treatment, but more severe ones usual-
ly require
prostatectomy.
Alternatively,
drug treatment with
alpha-blocker drugs
or
androgen drugs
may be given,
prostate
gland A
solid,
chestnut-
shaped organ that surrounds the 1st
part of the male
urethra,
just below the
bladder.
It produces secretions that
form part of the seminal fluid during
ejaculation.
The ejaculatory ducts from
PROSTATE GLAND
the seminal vesicles pass through the
prostate gland to enter the urethra,
prostate specific antigen An
enz}nme,
normally
produced by the prostate
gland. If produced in excess, it may
indicate the presence of
prostate cancer.
prostatism Symptoms resulting from
enlargement of the prostate gland (see
prostate
,
enlarged).
prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate
gland, usually affecting men aged 30-50.
It is often caused by a bacterial infec-
tion that has spread from the
urethra.
A
urinary
catheter
increases the risk. Pro-
statitis causes pain when passing urine
and increased frequency of urination; it
sometimes causes fever and a discharge
from the
penis.
There may be pain in the
lower abdomen, around the rectum,
and in the lower back, and blood in the
urine. Diagnosis is made by
rectal ex-
amination
and tests on urine samples
and urethral secretions. Treatment is
with
antibiotic drugs.
The condition may
be slow to clear up and tends to recur,
prosthesis An artificial replacement for
a missing or diseased part of the body;
for example, artificial limbs (see
limb
,
artificial),
heart valves (see
heart-valve
surgery),
or glass eyes (see eye,
artificial).
prosthetics, dental The branch of
den-
tistry
concerned with the replacement
of missing teeth and their supporting
structures. It includes
dentures,
over-
dentures (semipermanent fittings over
existing teeth), crowns (see
crown, den-
tal),
and bridges (see
bridge
,
dental).
467
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