PROTEASE INHIBITORS
PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM
protease inhibitors A type of
antivta
drug
used to delay the progression of
HIV
infection (see
AIDS).
proteins Large molecules consisting of
hundreds or thousands of
amino acids
linked into long chains. Proteins may
also contain sugars (glycoproteins) and
lipids
(lipoproteins). There are 2 main
types of proteins. Fibrous proteins are
insoluble and form the structural basis
of many body tissues. Globular proteins
are soluble and include all
enzymes,
many
hormones,
and some blood pro-
teins, such as
haemoglobin
.
protein synthesis The formation of
protein molecules through the joining
of
amino acids.
proteinuria The presence of
protein
in
the
urine.
It may result from kidney dis-
orders, including
glomerulonephritis
and
urinary tract infection.
Increased protein
in the urine may also occur because of a
generalized disorder that causes in-
creased protein in the blood. Proteinuria
is diagnosed by
urinalysis.
proton pump inhibitors A type of
ulcer-healing drug
that is used to treat
peptic ulcers.
protoplasm A term for the entire con-
tents of a cell.
protozoa The simplest, most primitive
type of animal, consisting of a single
cell. All protozoa are bigger than
bacte-
ria
but are still microscopic. About 30
types of protozoa
are human parasites,
including those that
are responsible for
malaria
,
amoebiasis
,
giardiasis
,
sleeping
sickness
,
trichomon-
iasis, toxoplasmosis,
and
leishmaniasis
.
P
TYPICAL PROTOZOAN
protriptyline An
antidepressant drug
that is used to treat
depression
accomp-
anied by tiredness
and lethargy. Possi-
ble adverse effects
include palpitations,
anxiety, insomnia,
and a rash that be-
comes worse when
exposed to sunlight.
proximal A term describing a part of
the body nearer to a central point of ref-
erence, such as the trunk.
prurigo Thickening and
itching
of the
skin
due to repeated scratching.
pruritus The medical term for
itching
.
pruritus ani Itching of the
anus.
Causes
may include an
anal fissure
,
haemor-
rhoids,
or
threadworm infestation.
PSA An abbreviation for
prostate spe-
cific antigen.
pseud-/pseudo- Prefixes meaning false.
pseudarthrosis A term meaning false
joint, used to describe an operation in
which the ends of the
2
opposing bones
in a joint are removed and a piece of tis-
sue is fixed in the gap as a cushion.
The term also describes a rare child-
hood condition in which congenital
abnormality of the lower half of the
tibia
leads to spontaneous
fracture.
pseudocyesis See
pregnancy false.
pseudodementia Severe
depression
in
elderly people that mimics
dementia.
Symptoms include intellectual impair-
ment and loss of memory.
pseudoephedrine A
decongestant drug
used to relieve
nasa congestion.
High
doses may cause anxiety, nausea, and
dizziness.
Occasionally,
hypertension,
headache, and
palpitations
occur.
pseudoepidemic An outbreak of an ill-
ness in a community or in an institution
that is thought to be due to a form of
hysteria.
Typical symptoms are head-
ache and a general feeling of sickness.
pseudogout A form of
arthritis
that
results from the deposition of calcium
pyrophosphate crystals in a joint. The
underlying cause is unknown; in rare
cases, it is a complication of
diabetes
mellitus
,
hyperparathyroidism
, and
haem-
ochromatosis
. Symptoms are similar to
gout.
Diagnosis is from a sample of
joint fluid. Treatment is with
nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs).
pseudohermaphroditism A
congeni-
tal
abnormality in which the external
genitalia resemble those of the oppo-
site sex, but ovarian or testicular tissue
is present as normal. A female pseudo-
hermaphrodite may have an enlarged
clitoris
resembling a
penis
and enlarged
labia
resembling a
scrotum.
A male may
have a very small penis and a divided
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