defence against local infection. The
position of an individual's appendix
partly determines the set of symptoms
produced by acute
mation of the appendix).
A desire for food; a pleasant
sensation felt in anticipation of eating.
Appetite, which is regulated by 2 parts
cerebral cortex), is learned by enjoying
a variety of foods that smell, taste, and
look good. It combines with
ensure that the right amount of a wide
range of foods is eaten to stay healthy.
appetite, loss of
Loss of appetite is
usually temporary and due to an emo-
tional upset or minor illness
loss of appetite may have a more seri-
ous underlying cause, such as chronic
infection or cancer.
Various tonics and
stimulate the appetite. None are proven
to be effective. Some drugs such as
may stimulate the appetite
when used to treat unrelated disorders.
A group of drugs
that reduce the desire to eat. Appetite
suppressants may be used in the treat-
ment of severe
, along with diet
and exercise. Their use is limited to a
maximum of 12 weeks due to the risk of
serious effects on the blood supply to
the lungs and on heart valves.
An inability to carry out pur-
muscle power and coordination. Aprax-
ia is caused by damage to nerve tracts
(the main mass of the
brain) that translate the idea for a move-
ment into an actual movement. Damage
to the cerebrum may be caused by a
There are various forms of apraxia,
each related to damage in different
parts of the brain. A person with ideo-
motor apraxia is unable to carry out a
spoken command to make a particular
movement, but at other times can make
the same movement unconsciously. In
sensory apraxia, a person may not be
able to use an object due to loss of abil-
ity to recognize its purpose.
APUD cell tumour
A growth composed
of cells that produce various hormones.
These cells, amine precursor uptake
and decarboxylation (APUD) cells, occur
in different parts of the body. Some tu-
mours of the thyroid gland, pancreas,
and lungs are APUD cell tumours, as are
a carcinoid tumour (see
phaeochrom ocytom a
of adrenal tumour).
tion that is commonly used to treat
dry, scaly, or itchy skin in conditions
A watery fluid that
fills the front chamber of the
One of the fatty acids
in the body that are essential for growth.
Peanut oil, mostly used in
, to soften faeces and make
bowel movements easier. It may also be
applied to the scalp, followed by sham-
pooing, in the treatment of
Long, thin, spider-like
fingers and toes that sometimes occur
spontaneously but are characteristic of
an inherited con-
nective tissue disease.
A rare condition that is
characterized by chronic inflammation
and thickening of the arachnoid mater,
which is the middle of the 3
(the membranes that cover the brain
and spinal cord).
The middle of the 3
layers of membrane (
Any of the many viruses trans-
mitted by a member of the arthropod
group of animals, including insects,