heart defects called the
tetralogy of Fal-
Rarely, the stenosis develops later
in life, after
cause symptoms of heart failure.
Diagnosis is made by a
may relieve the narrowing. Otherwise,
or other types of
open heart surgery
are often successful.
pulp, dental The soft tissue containing
blood vessels and nerves in the middle
of each tooth (see
pulpectomy The removal of the tooth
. It is part of
pulpotomy Removal of the coronal part
of a tooth after it has
become inflamed, usually by infection.
Infection is most often due to extensive
tooth decay (see
my prevents further degeneration of the
pulp. If treatment is unsuccessful,
may be required.
pulse The rhythmic expansion and con-
traction of an artery as blood is forced
through it, pumped by the heart.
pump, infusion A machine that is used
for the administration of a continuous,
controlled amount of a drug or other
fluid. The fluid is delivered through a
needle that is inserted into a vein or
under the skin.
pump, insulin A type of infusion pump
) used to administer
a continuous dose of insulin to some
. The rate
of flow is adjusted so that the level of
blood glucose (sugar) is constant.
punch-drunk A condition that is char-
acterized by slurred speech, impaired
concentration, and slowed thought pro-
cesses. It is caused by brain damage
from several episodes of brief loss of
consciousness due to head injury.
pupil The circular opening in the centre
In bright conditions, the
pupil constricts; in dim light, it dilates.
purgative A term for a
purine Any of a group of nitrogen-
containing compounds synthesized in
the body or produced by the digestion of
Increased levels of
purine can cause
may lead to
. Foods that have a high
purine content include sardines, liver,
kidneys, pulses, and poultry.
purpura Any of a group of disorders
characterized by purplish or reddish-
brown areas or spots of discoloration,
caused by bleeding within skin or mu-
cous membranes. Purpura also refers to
the discoloured areas themselves.
There are many different types and
causes of purpura. Common (senile)
purpura mostly affects middle-aged or
elderly women. Large discoloured areas,
caused by thinning of the tissues sup-
porting blood vessels under the skin,
appear on the thighs or the back of the
hands and forearms.
is caused by inflammation of
blood vessels beneath the skin. Purpura
can also occur as a result of
and can be
purulent A term that means containing,
producing, or consisting of
pus A pale yellow or green, creamy fluid
found at the site of bacterial infection.
Pus is composed of millions of dead
, partly digested tissue,
dead and living bacteria, and other sub-
stances. A collection of pus within solid
tissue is called an
pustule A small skin
PUVA A type of
treat certain skin conditions, especially
. PUVA combines a
and a controlled dose of long-
pyelolithotomy An operation performed
to remove a kidney stone (see
. Pyelolithotomy has been
largely replaced by other procedures,
, which uses ultrason-
ic waves to break up the stones.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the
, usually as a result of a bacterial
infection. Pyelonephritis is more com-
mon in women and is more likely to
occur during pregnancy. Symptoms of
pyelonephritis include a high fever,
chills, and back pain.
possible complication. Pyelonephritis is