PULP, DENTAL
PYELONEPHRITIS
heart defects called the
tetralogy of Fal-
lot.
Rarely, the stenosis develops later
in life, after
rheumatic fever,
and may
cause symptoms of heart failure.
Diagnosis is made by a
chest X-ray,
ECG, echocardiography,
and Doppler
ultrasound
scanning. A
balloon catheter
may relieve the narrowing. Otherwise,
heart-valve surgery
or other types of
open heart surgery
are often successful.
pulp, dental The soft tissue containing
blood vessels and nerves in the middle
of each tooth (see
teeth
).
pulpectomy The removal of the tooth
pulp
. It is part of
root-canal treatment
.
pulpotomy Removal of the coronal part
of the
pulp
of a tooth after it has
become inflamed, usually by infection.
Infection is most often due to extensive
tooth decay (see
caries, dental)
or dental
fractures (see
fracture, dental).
Pulpoto-
my prevents further degeneration of the
pulp. If treatment is unsuccessful,
root-
canal treatment
may be required.
pulse The rhythmic expansion and con-
traction of an artery as blood is forced
through it, pumped by the heart.
pump, infusion A machine that is used
for the administration of a continuous,
controlled amount of a drug or other
fluid. The fluid is delivered through a
needle that is inserted into a vein or
under the skin.
pump, insulin A type of infusion pump
(see
pump, infusion
) used to administer
a continuous dose of insulin to some
patients with
diabetes mellitus
. The rate
of flow is adjusted so that the level of
blood glucose (sugar) is constant.
punch-drunk A condition that is char-
acterized by slurred speech, impaired
concentration, and slowed thought pro-
cesses. It is caused by brain damage
from several episodes of brief loss of
consciousness due to head injury.
pupil The circular opening in the centre
of the
iris.
In bright conditions, the
pupil constricts; in dim light, it dilates.
purgative A term for a
laxative drug.
purine Any of a group of nitrogen-
containing compounds synthesized in
the body or produced by the digestion of
certain proteins.
Increased levels of
purine can cause
hyperuricaemia
, which
may lead to
gout
. Foods that have a high
purine content include sardines, liver,
kidneys, pulses, and poultry.
purpura Any of a group of disorders
characterized by purplish or reddish-
brown areas or spots of discoloration,
caused by bleeding within skin or mu-
cous membranes. Purpura also refers to
the discoloured areas themselves.
There are many different types and
causes of purpura. Common (senile)
purpura mostly affects middle-aged or
elderly women. Large discoloured areas,
caused by thinning of the tissues sup-
porting blood vessels under the skin,
appear on the thighs or the back of the
hands and forearms.
Henoch-Schonlein
purpura
is caused by inflammation of
blood vessels beneath the skin. Purpura
can also occur as a result of
thrombocy-
topenia
.
In
addition,
it
can
be
associated with
septicaemia
and can be
seen with
meningitis
(see
glass test
).
purulent A term that means containing,
producing, or consisting of
pus
.
pus A pale yellow or green, creamy fluid
found at the site of bacterial infection.
Pus is composed of millions of dead
white
blood cells
, partly digested tissue,
dead and living bacteria, and other sub-
stances. A collection of pus within solid
tissue is called an
abscess.
pustule A small skin
blister
that con-
tains
pus
.
PUVA A type of
phototherapy
used to
treat certain skin conditions, especially
psoriasis
. PUVA combines a
psoralen
drug
and a controlled dose of long-
wavelength
ultraviolet light
.
pyelitis See
pyelonephritis
.
pyelography See
urography
.
pyelolithotomy An operation performed
to remove a kidney stone (see
calculus,
urinary tract)
. Pyelolithotomy has been
largely replaced by other procedures,
such as
lithotripsy
, which uses ultrason-
ic waves to break up the stones.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the
kid-
ney
, usually as a result of a bacterial
infection. Pyelonephritis is more com-
mon in women and is more likely to
occur during pregnancy. Symptoms of
pyelonephritis include a high fever,
chills, and back pain.
Septicaemia
is a
possible complication. Pyelonephritis is
treated with
antibiotic drugs.
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