RELATIONSHIP COUNSELLING
REPAGLINIDE
A high fever of up to 40°C suddenly dev-
elops, with shivering, headache, muscle
pains, nausea, and vomiting. The symp-
toms persist for 3-6 days, culminating in
a
crisis
with a risk of collapse and death.
The person then apparently recovers but
suffers another attack 7-10 days later. If
tick-borne, there may be several such
relapses, each progressively milder.
The spirochaetes can be seen in a
blood smear,
and they can be elimina-
ted with
antibiotic drugs.
relationship
counselling
Formerly
known as marriage guidance, relation-
ship counselling is a type of professional
therapy for established partners aimed
at resolving the problems within their
relationship. The couple attends regular
sessions together in which the counsellor
promotes communication and attempts
to help resolve differences between the
partners. Relationship counselling is
largely based on the ideas and methods
of
behaviour therapy
. If some of the
couple's problems are sexual, the coun-
sellor may refer them for
sex therapy
.
relaxation techniques Methods of con-
sciously releasing muscular tension to
achieve mental calm. They can assist
people with
anxiety
symptoms, help to
reduce
hypertension
, and relieve stress,
and may help pregnant women to cope
with labour pains (see
childbirth, natural).
Active relaxation consists of tensing
and relaxing each of the muscles in turn.
Passive relaxation involves clearing the
mind and concentrating on a phrase or
sound.
Breathing exercises
help to pre-
vent
hyperventilation
, which often brings
on or worsens anxiety. Traditional con-
centration methods, such as
yoga
and
meditation,
employ similar techniques.
releasing factors A group of
hormones
,
produced by the
hypothalamus
in the
brain, that stimulates the release of other
hormones.
Luteinizing hormone-releasing
hormone
is one such releasing factor.
rem An outdated unit of absorbed
radi-
ation
dose, now superseded by the
sievert.
(See also
radiation units.)
remission A temporary disappearance
or reduction in the severity of the symp-
toms of a disease, or the period during
which this occurs.
renal Related to the
kidney
.
renal biopsy See
kidney biopsy
.
renal cell carcinoma The most com-
mon type of
kidney cancer
.
renal colic Spasms of severe pain on one
side of the back, usually caused by a
kidney stone (see
calculus, urinary tract)
passing down the
ureter
. There may also
be nausea, vomiting, sweating, and blood
in the urine. Treatment is usually with
bed rest, plenty of fluids, and injections
of an
analgesic drug,
such as
pethidine.
renal failure See
kidney failure.
renal transplant Another term for
kid-
ney transplant
.
renal tubular acidosis A condition in
which the
kidneys
are unable to excrete
normal amounts of acid made by the
body. The blood is more acidic than nor-
mal, and the urine less acidic. Causes
include kidney damage due to disease,
drugs, or a
genetic disorder;
but in many
cases the cause is unknown. The acidosis
may result in
osteomalacia
, kidney stones
(see
calculus, urinary tract
),
nephrocalci-
nosis
, and hypokalaemia (an abnormally
low level of potassium in the blood).
renin An
enzyme
involved in the regula-
tion of
blood pressure.
When the blood
pressure falls, the
kidneys
release renin,
which changes a substance called angio-
tensinogen into angiotensin I. This is
rapidly converted into angiotensin II,
which acts to increase blood pressure.
renography A technique that uses a
radioactive substance to measure
kid-
ney
function. Renography is quick and
painless and is used when obstruction
of the passage of
urine
is suspected.
The radioactive substance is injected
into the bloodstream and passes through
the kidneys into the urine.
Radiation
counts are taken continually throughout
the procedure. Normally, the count rises
and then falls as the substance passes
into the bladder. If obstruction is pre-
sent, the substance accumulates in the
kidneys and the count continues to rise.
(See also
kidney imaging.)
repaglinide An oral
hypoglycaemic
drug
used either alone or in combination with
metformin
in the treatment of type
2
diabetes mellitus.
Repaglinide stimu-
lates the release of
insulin.
Side effects
may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea
or constipation, nausea, and vomiting.
R
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