roseola infantum A common infectious
disease, probably viral, that mainly
affects children aged
There is an abrupt onset of irritability and
fever. The temperature drops to normal
after 4 or 5 days. About the same time, a
rash appears on the trunk, often spread-
ing to the neck, face, and limbs, before
clearing up within 1-2 days. Other symp-
toms may include a sore throat and
in the neck.
occur during the fever, but there are no
serious effects. The only treatment is to
keep the child cool and give
rosiglitazone An oral
used in combination with other oral
sulphonylurea) in the treatment of type
Rosiglitazone acts by
reducing peripheral insulin resistance.
Side effects may include gastrointestinal
disturbances, weight gain, and
cuff A reinforcing
around the shoulder
, composed of
4 muscle tendons that merge with the
fibrous capsule enclosing the joint.
rotavirus A type of virus that is one of
the causes of
in young children.
roundworms Also known as nematodes,
a class of elongated, cylindrical worms.
Some are human
inhabit the intestines. The only common
roundworm disease in the UK is
, atrichinoisis, and
occur. Some people return
from abroad with
RSI The abbreviation for
, a type of overuse injury.
rubber dam A rubber sheet used to iso-
or more teeth during certain
dental procedures. The dam acts as a
barrier against saliva and prevents the
inhalation of debris.
rubefacient A substance that causes red-
ness of the skin by increasing blood flow
to it. Rubefacients are sometimes includ-
ed in ointments used to relieve muscular
aches and pains and work by producing
counter-irritation: they stimulate nerve
endings to create a superficial feeling of
heat or cold, and distract the brain from
the deeper muscular pain. Examples
include methyl salicylate and menthol.
rubella A viral infection, also known as
German measles. It is serious only if it
affects a nonimmune woman in the early
months of pregnancy, when there is a risk
that the virus will cause severe
in the fetus.
The rubella virus is spread by mother-
to-baby transmission and in airborne
droplets; it has an
2-3 weeks. Infection usually occurs in
children aged 6-12. A rash appears on
the face, spreads to the trunk and limbs,
then disappears after a few days. There
may be slight fever and enlarged
at the back of the neck.
The virus may be transmitted from a
few days before symptoms appear until
one day after they disappear. An unborn
baby is at risk if the mother is infected
during the first 4 months of pregnancy.
The earlier the infection occurs, the more
likely the infant is to be affected, and the
more serious the abnormalities tend to
be. The most common abnormalities are
, and bone abnormalities. About 1
in 5 affected babies dies in early infancy.
There is no specific treatment, apart
for fever. Treatment of
defects. Rubella vaccine provides long-
lasting immunity to the disease; it is
given in the
to babies aged
12-15 months, with a booster at school
entry. Rubella infection also provides
immunity. If a nonimmune pregnant
woman comes into contact with a person
who has rubella, passive immunization
prevent infection of the fetus.
rubeola Another name for
running injuries Disorders resulting
from the effects on the body of jogging or
running. Common injuries include
stress fractures, plantar
, back pain, tibial
rupture A common term for a
The term also refers to a complete break
in a structure, as in rupture of a