ROSEOLA INFANTUM
RUPTURE
roseola infantum A common infectious
disease, probably viral, that mainly
affects children aged
6
months to
2
years.
There is an abrupt onset of irritability and
fever. The temperature drops to normal
after 4 or 5 days. About the same time, a
rash appears on the trunk, often spread-
ing to the neck, face, and limbs, before
clearing up within 1-2 days. Other symp-
toms may include a sore throat and
enlargement of
lymph nodes
in the neck.
Convulsions (see
convulsion, febrile)
may
occur during the fever, but there are no
serious effects. The only treatment is to
keep the child cool and give
paracetamol.
rosiglitazone An oral
hypoglycaemic
drug
used in combination with other oral
hypoglycaemics (either
metformin
or a
sulphonylurea) in the treatment of type
2
diabetes mellitus.
Rosiglitazone acts by
reducing peripheral insulin resistance.
Side effects may include gastrointestinal
disturbances, weight gain, and
anaemia.
rotator
cuff A reinforcing
structure
around the shoulder
joint
, composed of
4 muscle tendons that merge with the
fibrous capsule enclosing the joint.
rotavirus A type of virus that is one of
the causes of
gastroenteritis
, especially
in young children.
roughage See
fibre, dietary
.
roundworms Also known as nematodes,
a class of elongated, cylindrical worms.
Some are human
parasites
and usually
inhabit the intestines. The only common
roundworm disease in the UK is
thread-
worm infestation;
occasionally,
ascariasis,
w
hipworm infestation
, atrichinoisis, and
toxocariasis
occur. Some people return
from abroad with
hookworm infestation
.
Most
infestations
are
treated
with
anthelmintic drugs.
RSI The abbreviation for
repetitive strain
injury
, a type of overuse injury.
rubber dam A rubber sheet used to iso-
late
1
or more teeth during certain
dental procedures. The dam acts as a
barrier against saliva and prevents the
inhalation of debris.
rubefacient A substance that causes red-
ness of the skin by increasing blood flow
to it. Rubefacients are sometimes includ-
ed in ointments used to relieve muscular
aches and pains and work by producing
counter-irritation: they stimulate nerve
endings to create a superficial feeling of
heat or cold, and distract the brain from
the deeper muscular pain. Examples
include methyl salicylate and menthol.
rubella A viral infection, also known as
German measles. It is serious only if it
affects a nonimmune woman in the early
months of pregnancy, when there is a risk
that the virus will cause severe
birth
defects
in the fetus.
The rubella virus is spread by mother-
to-baby transmission and in airborne
droplets; it has an
incubation period
of
2-3 weeks. Infection usually occurs in
children aged 6-12. A rash appears on
the face, spreads to the trunk and limbs,
then disappears after a few days. There
may be slight fever and enlarged
lymph
nodes
at the back of the neck.
The virus may be transmitted from a
few days before symptoms appear until
one day after they disappear. An unborn
baby is at risk if the mother is infected
during the first 4 months of pregnancy.
The earlier the infection occurs, the more
likely the infant is to be affected, and the
more serious the abnormalities tend to
be. The most common abnormalities are
deafness
, congenital
heart disease
,
learn-
ing difficulties
,
cataracts
,
purpura
,
cerebral
palsy
, and bone abnormalities. About 1
in 5 affected babies dies in early infancy.
There is no specific treatment, apart
from
paracetamol
for fever. Treatment of
rubella
syndrome
depends
on
the
defects. Rubella vaccine provides long-
lasting immunity to the disease; it is
given in the
MMR vaccine
to babies aged
12-15 months, with a booster at school
entry. Rubella infection also provides
immunity. If a nonimmune pregnant
woman comes into contact with a person
who has rubella, passive immunization
by
immunoglobulin injection
may help
prevent infection of the fetus.
rubeola Another name for
measles.
running injuries Disorders resulting
from the effects on the body of jogging or
running. Common injuries include
ten-
dinitis,
stress fractures, plantar
fasciitis,
torn
hamstring muscles
, back pain, tibial
compartment syndrome
, and
shin splints
.
rupture A common term for a
hernia.
The term also refers to a complete break
in a structure, as in rupture of a
tendon.
R
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