SAC
SALIVA
S
sac A bag-like organ or body structure.
saccharin An
artificial sweetener.
sacralgia Pain in the
sacrum
caused by
pressure on a spinal nerve, usually due
to a
disc prolapse
. Rarely, it may caused
by
bone cancer.
(See also
back
pain.)
sacralization Fusion of the 5th (lowest)
lumbar
vertebra
with the upper
sacrum.
It
may be present at birth, in which there
are usually no symptoms. Surgery may
be performed to treat a
disc prolapse
or
spondylolisthesis.
(See also
spinal fusion.)
sacroiliac joint One of a pair of rigid
joints
on each side of the body that form
an interface between the
sacrum
and the
ilium
. They can be strained, usually by
childbirth or overstriding, causing pain
in the lower back and buttocks. They can
also become inflamed (see
sacroiliitis.)
sacroiliitis Inflammation of a
sacroiliac
joint.
Causes include
ankylosing spondyli-
tis, rheumatoid arthritis, Reiter's syndrome
or arthritis associated with
psoriasis
. The
main symptom is pain in the lower back,
buttocks, groin, and back of the thigh.
Treatment is with
nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs.
sacrum The large triangular bone in the
lower
spine.
The sacrum's broad upper
part articulates with the 5th (lowest)
SACRUM
Sacrum
PELVIS
lumbar
vertebra
, and its narrow lower
part with the
coccyx
. The sides of the
sacrum are connected by the
sacroiliac
joints
to each
ilium
. The sacrum lies in
the centre back of the
pelvis.
Disorders
affecting the sacrum include
sacralgia
,
spondylolisthesis,
and
sacralization.
(See
also
spine, disorders of.
)
sadism The tendency or practice of deriv-
ing pleasure, particularly sexual pleasure,
from the infliction of suffering or pain
on others. (See also
sadomasochism.
)
sadomasochism The tendency or prac-
tice of deriving sexual pleasure by
inflicting pain (see
sadism
) and receiving
abuse (see
masochism
); one trait usually
predominates. The term also describes
a relationship in which one partner is
very dominant and one is submissive.
SAD S The abbreviation for
seasonal affec-
tive disorder syndrome.
safe period See
contraception, natural
methods of
.
safer sex Preventive measures to reduce
the risk of
sexually transmitted infections
;
for example, maintaining a monogamous
sexual relationship and using a
condom.
salbutamol A
bronchodilator drug
used
to treat
asthma
, chronic
bronchitis
, and
emphysema.
It is also occasionally used
in the prevention of premature labour.
salicylate drugs A group of drugs,
such as
aspirin
and
benorilate,
with anti-
inflammatory, fever-reducing, and mild
analgesic
action. Overdose causes hyper-
ventilation, tinnitus, sweating, abnormal
bleeding, biochemical disturbances, and,
in severe cases, convulsions and coma.
salicylic acid A
keratolytic drug
used to
treat skin disorders, such as
dermatitis
,
eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, ichthyosis,
acne, warts,
and callosities (see
caUus
,
skin),
and also sometimes to treat
fungal
infections.
Side effects are few and may
include irritation and dryness of the skin,
saline A solution of salt (sodium chlo-
ride). "Normal saline" solution has the
same concentration as body fluids and
may be given by
intravenous infusion
to
replace fluids lost in severe dehydration,
saliva The slightly alkaline fluid that is
secreted into the mouth by the
salivary
glands
and the
mucous m em branes
lin-
ing the mouth. Saliva contains the
enzyme amylase, which helps to break
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