SALIVARY GLANDS
SALPINGO-OOPHORECTOMY
down carbohydrates (see
digestive sys-
tem).
Saliva keeps the mouth moist,
lubricates food to aid swallowing, and
facilitates the sense of taste.
salivary glands Three pairs of glands
that secrete
saliva,
via ducts, into the
mouth. The largest, the
parotid glands,
lie on each side of the jaw; the sublin-
gual glands lie on the floor of the front
of the mouth; and the submandibular
glands lie near the back of the mouth.
The parotid glands are commonly in-
fected with the
mumps
virus. Stones
may form in a salivary duct or gland.
Poor
oral hygiene
may allow bacterial
infection of the glands,
sometimes
leading to an abscess. Salivary gland
tumours are rare, except for a type of
parotid tumour that is slow-growing,
noncancerous,
and painless.
Insuffi-
cient salivation causes a dry mouth (see
mouth, dry
) and may be due to
dehydra-
tion
or
Sjogren's syndrome,
or it may
occur as a side effect of certain drugs.
SALIVARY GLANDS
salivation, excessive The production of
too much
saliva.
Excess salivation some-
times occurs during pregnancy. Other
causes include mouth problems such as
irritation of the mouth lining,
gingivitis,
or
mouth ulcers;
digestive tract disorders
such as
peptic ulcers
and
oesophagitis;
and nervous system disorders such as
Parkinson's disease.
In some cases, it
may be reduced by
anticholinergic drugs.
salmeterol A
bronchodilator drug
used
in the treatment of
asthma.
The drug is
usually inhaled twice a day to prevent
asthma attacks. Side effects may include
slight tremor, agitation, insomnia, and,
rarely, a rapid heartbeat.
salmonella infections Infections due to
any of the salmonella group of bacteria.
One type of salmonella causes
typhoid
fever;
others commonly result in bac-
terial
food poisoning
, most often through
contamination of hens' eggs or chicken.
Infants, the elderly, and people who are
debilitated are most susceptible.
Symptoms of salmonella food poison-
ing usually develop suddenly 12-24
hours after infection and include head-
ache, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea,
and sometimes fever. The symptoms
usually last for only 2 or 3 days, but, in
severe cases,
dehydration
or
septicaemia
may develop.
Treatment is by
rehydration therapy
. In
severe cases, fluid replacement by
intra-
venous infusion
may be needed.
salmon patch See
stork mark.
salpingectomy Surgical removal of one
or both
fallopian tubes
. Salpingectomy
may be performed if the tube is infected
(see
salpingitis)
or to treat
ectopic preg-
nancy.
(See also
salpingo-oophorectomy.)
salpingitis Inflammation of a
fallopian
tube
, commonly caused by infection
spreading up from the vagina, cervix, or
uterus. The infection is usually a sexually
transmitted one, such as
gonorrhoea
or
chlamydial infection
. Salpingitis is also a
feature of
pelvic inflammatory disease
.
Symptoms include severe abdominal
pain and fever. Pus may collect in the
tube, and a pelvic
abscess
may develop.
Diagnosis is by examination of vaginal
discharge, or
laparoscopy
. Treatment is
with
antibiotics.
Surgery may be needed
if an abscess has formed.
If the infection damages the inside of
the fallopian tubes,
infertility
or an
increased risk of an
ectopic pregnancy
may result. In some cases, damage to a
tube can be corrected surgically.
salpingo-oophorectomy Removal
of
one or both
fallopian tubes
and
ovaries.
This may be performed to treat a benign
ovarian cyst.
It may also be performed
together with a
hysterectomy
to treat
S
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