down carbohydrates (see
Saliva keeps the mouth moist,
lubricates food to aid swallowing, and
facilitates the sense of taste.
salivary glands Three pairs of glands
via ducts, into the
mouth. The largest, the
lie on each side of the jaw; the sublin-
gual glands lie on the floor of the front
of the mouth; and the submandibular
glands lie near the back of the mouth.
The parotid glands are commonly in-
fected with the
may form in a salivary duct or gland.
may allow bacterial
infection of the glands,
leading to an abscess. Salivary gland
tumours are rare, except for a type of
parotid tumour that is slow-growing,
cient salivation causes a dry mouth (see
) and may be due to
or it may
occur as a side effect of certain drugs.
salivation, excessive The production of
Excess salivation some-
times occurs during pregnancy. Other
causes include mouth problems such as
irritation of the mouth lining,
digestive tract disorders
and nervous system disorders such as
In some cases, it
may be reduced by
in the treatment of
The drug is
usually inhaled twice a day to prevent
asthma attacks. Side effects may include
slight tremor, agitation, insomnia, and,
rarely, a rapid heartbeat.
salmonella infections Infections due to
any of the salmonella group of bacteria.
One type of salmonella causes
others commonly result in bac-
, most often through
contamination of hens' eggs or chicken.
Infants, the elderly, and people who are
debilitated are most susceptible.
Symptoms of salmonella food poison-
ing usually develop suddenly 12-24
hours after infection and include head-
ache, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea,
and sometimes fever. The symptoms
usually last for only 2 or 3 days, but, in
Treatment is by
severe cases, fluid replacement by
may be needed.
salmon patch See
salpingectomy Surgical removal of one
may be performed if the tube is infected
or to treat
salpingitis Inflammation of a
, commonly caused by infection
spreading up from the vagina, cervix, or
uterus. The infection is usually a sexually
transmitted one, such as
. Salpingitis is also a
pelvic inflammatory disease
Symptoms include severe abdominal
pain and fever. Pus may collect in the
tube, and a pelvic
Diagnosis is by examination of vaginal
. Treatment is
Surgery may be needed
if an abscess has formed.
If the infection damages the inside of
the fallopian tubes,
increased risk of an
may result. In some cases, damage to a
tube can be corrected surgically.
one or both
This may be performed to treat a benign
It may also be performed
together with a