SALT
SCAPULA
S
cancer of the ovary (see
ovary, cancer
of)
or the uterus (see
uterus, cancer
of).
salt Commonly used to refer to
sodium
chloride, a substance formed when an
acid and base react. (See also
saline.)
salve A healing, soothing ointment.
sandfly bites Bites of small, long-legged
sandflies, found in many warm climates,
which can transmit disease to humans.
In tropical and subtropical areas they
transmit
leishmaniasis
. In parts of Asia
and the Mediterranean, they transmit
sandfly fever, an influenza-like illness.
In the western Andes, they transmit bar-
tonellosis, different forms of which cause
either joint pain and fever, or a rash.
sanitary protection Articles, such as
pads and tampons, used to absorb blood
and protect clothing during
menstruation
.
saphenous vein A major vein that runs
the length of the leg just under the skin.
It is sometimes removed and used to
bypass a blockage in blood vessels of
the heart (see
coronary artery bypass
).
sarcoidosis A rare disease of unknown
cause in which there is inflammation of
tissues throughout the body, especially
the lymph nodes, lungs, skin, eyes, and
liver. It occurs mainly in young adults.
Symptoms do not always occur, but
when they do, they include fever, gener-
alized aches, painful joints, and painful,
bloodshot eyes. Sarcoidosis may also
cause enlargement of the lymph nodes,
breathlessness,
erythema nodosum
, a
purplish facial rash, and areas of numb-
ness. Possible complications include
hypercalcaemia,
which may damage the
kidneys, and
pulmonary fibrosis.
Treatment of sarcoidosis is not always
needed. Most people recover completely
within
2
years, with or without treat-
ment, but some develop a persistent,
chronic form of the disease.
Cortico-
steroids
are given to treat persistent
fever or erythema nodosum, to prevent
blindness in an affected eye, and to
reduce the risk of lung damage.
sarcoma A cancer of
connective tissue.
Types are
osteosarcoma, Kaposi's sarco-
ma, chondrosarcoma,
and
fibrosarcoma.
saturated fats See
fats and oils
;
nutrition
.
scab A crust that forms on the skin or
on a mucous membrane at the site of a
healing wound or infected area.
scabies A skin infestation caused by the
mite
sarcoptes scabiei,
which burrows
into the skin to lay eggs. Scabies is highly
contagious by close physical contact
and is most common in infants, chil-
dren, and young adults.
The mite's burrows appear on the skin
as grey, scaly swellings, usually between
the fingers, on the wrists and genitals,
and in the armpits. Later, reddish lumps
may appear on the limbs and trunk. The
infestation causes intense itching, par-
ticularly at night. Treatment is with an
insecticide lotion.
scald A
burn
due to hot liquid or steam.
scaling, dental Removal of dental
cal-
culi
(see
calcuus, dental
) from the teeth
to prevent or treat
periodontal disease
.
scalp The skin of the head, and its
underlying tissue layers, that is normally
covered with hair. Scalp skin is tougher
than other skin and is attached to an
underlying sheet of muscle that extends
from the eyebrows, over the top of the
head, to the nape of the neck. The scalp
is richly supplied with blood vessels.
Disorders affecting the scalp include
dandruff
;
alopecia
;
sebaceous cysts
;
pso-
riasis
; fungal infections such as
tinea
;
and parasitic infestations such as
lice.
Cradle cap
is common in infants.
scalpel A surgical knife for cutting tissue.
scan An image produced by one of sev-
eral
scanning techniques.
scanning techniques Methods of pro-
ducing images of organ structure (or
sometimes function) using sound waves,
radio waves,
X-rays
, or other forms of
radiation. Techniques include
ultrasound,
CT, radionuclide, MRI,
and
PET scanning
scaphoid One of the
wrist
bones. It is
the outermost bone on the thumb side
of the hand, in the row of wrist bones
nearest the elbow.
A fracture of the scaphoid is a common
wrist injury usually caused by a fall on an
outstretched hand. A characteristic symp-
tom is tenderness in the space between
the tendons at the base of the thumb
on the back of the hand. Treatment is by
immobilizing the wrist in a
cast
.
scapula One of a pair of wing-shaped
bones, commonly called the shoulder-
blades, which are situated over the
upper ribs at the back. The scapula
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