bladder cancer (see
and bladder stones
strapping The application of adhesive
tape to part of the body to exert pres-
sure and hold a structure in place.
strawberry naevus A bright red, raised
spot which appears in early infancy. It is
a type of
strep throat A
It is most common in chil-
dren. The bacteria are spread in droplets
coughed or breathed into the air.
In some people, the bacteria cause no
symptoms, but others suffer a sore throat,
fever, and enlarged lymph nodes in the
neck. In some cases, the bacterial toxins
produce a rash (see
Treatment is usually with a
Untreated, strep throat may lead
group. A particular type, haemolytic strep-
tococci, can cause
, and wound infections. Another
type is often responsible for
, and another can cause bacterial
if it enters the bloodstream.
to dissolve blood clots following a
Side effects include nausea, rash, and
treat a number of uncommon infections,
. It may damage nerves in
the inner ear, disturbing balance and
causing dizziness, tinnitus, or deafness.
Other side effects are facial numbness,
tingling in the hands, and headache.
stress Any interference that disturbs a
person's mental and physical well-being.
Stress may be experienced in response
to a range of physical and emotional
stimuli. When faced with stressful situ-
ations, the body responds by increasing
production of the hormones
, which pro-
pressure, and metabolism to improve
performance. However, at a certain level,
they disrupt a person's ability to cope.
Continued exposure to stress often
leads to mental and physical symptoms,
, palpitations, and muscular aches
post-traumatic stress disorder
is a direct response to a specific stressful
event. (See also
stress fracture A
that occurs as
a result of repetitive jarring of a bone.
Common sites include the metatarsal
bones in the foot (see
the tibia or fibula, the neck of the femur,
and the lumbar spine. The main symp-
toms are pain and tenderness at the
fracture site. Diagnosis is by
. Treatment consists of resting the
affected area for 4-6 weeks. The fracture
may be immobilized in a
stress ulcer An acute
, severe burns or
injuries, or during a major illness. Stress
ulcers are usually multiple and are most
common in the stomach. The exact
cause is unknown. Drugs are often given
to severely ill patients in hospital to pre-
vent the development of stress ulcers.
stretcher A frame covered with fabric
that is used in first aid for carrying the
sick, injured, or deceased.
stretch-mark Another name for
stria Also called a stretch-mark, a line on
caused by thinning and loss of
elasticity in the dermis. Striae first appear
as red, raised lines. Later they become
purple, eventually fading to shiny streaks.
Striae often develop on the hips and
thighs during the adolescent growth
spurt, especially in athletic girls. They are
a common feature of pregnancy, occur-
ring on the breasts, thighs, and lower
abdomen. Purple striae are a character-
istic feature of
Striae are thought to be caused by an
is no means of prevention, but in some
cases laser treatment may be used.
stricture Narrowing of a duct, canal, or
other passage in the body.
stridor An abnormal breathing sound
caused by narrowing or obstruction of
. Stridor is most
common in young children. It usually
Other causes include
, an inhaled
, and some larynx disorders.