STRAPPING
STRIDOR
S
prostatitis, cystitis,
bladder cancer (see
bladder tumours),
and bladder stones
(see
calculus, urinary
tract).
strapping The application of adhesive
tape to part of the body to exert pres-
sure and hold a structure in place.
strawberry naevus A bright red, raised
spot which appears in early infancy. It is
a type of
haemangioma
.
strep throat A
streptococcal infection
of
the
throat.
It is most common in chil-
dren. The bacteria are spread in droplets
coughed or breathed into the air.
In some people, the bacteria cause no
symptoms, but others suffer a sore throat,
fever, and enlarged lymph nodes in the
neck. In some cases, the bacterial toxins
produce a rash (see
scarlet fever)
.
Treatment is usually with a
penicillin
drug.
Untreated, strep throat may lead
to
glomerulonephritis
or
rheumatic fever
.
streptococcal
infections
Infections
caused by
bacteria
of the
streptococcus
group. A particular type, haemolytic strep-
tococci, can cause
tonsillitis
,
strep throat
,
scarlet fever
,
otitis media
,
pneumonia
,
ery-
sipelas
, and wound infections. Another
type is often responsible for
urinary tract
infection
, and another can cause bacterial
endocarditis
if it enters the bloodstream.
streptokinase A
thrombolytic drug
used
to dissolve blood clots following a
myo-
cardial infarction
or
pulmonary embolism.
Side effects include nausea, rash, and
cardiac
arrhythmias
.
streptomycin An
antibiotic drug
used to
treat a number of uncommon infections,
including
tularaemia
,
plague
,
brucellosis
,
and
glanders
. It may damage nerves in
the inner ear, disturbing balance and
causing dizziness, tinnitus, or deafness.
Other side effects are facial numbness,
tingling in the hands, and headache.
stress Any interference that disturbs a
person's mental and physical well-being.
Stress may be experienced in response
to a range of physical and emotional
stimuli. When faced with stressful situ-
ations, the body responds by increasing
production of the hormones
adrenaline
(epinephrine) and
cortisol
, which pro-
duce
changes
in
heart-rate,
blood
pressure, and metabolism to improve
performance. However, at a certain level,
they disrupt a person's ability to cope.
Continued exposure to stress often
leads to mental and physical symptoms,
such as
anxiety
and
depression
,
indiges-
tion
, palpitations, and muscular aches
and pains.
post-traumatic stress disorder
is a direct response to a specific stressful
event. (See also
relaxation techniques
.)
stress fracture A
fracture
that occurs as
a result of repetitive jarring of a bone.
Common sites include the metatarsal
bones in the foot (see
March fracture
),
the tibia or fibula, the neck of the femur,
and the lumbar spine. The main symp-
toms are pain and tenderness at the
fracture site. Diagnosis is by
bone imag-
ing
. Treatment consists of resting the
affected area for 4-6 weeks. The fracture
may be immobilized in a
cast
.
stress ulcer An acute
peptic ulcer
that
develops after
shock
, severe burns or
injuries, or during a major illness. Stress
ulcers are usually multiple and are most
common in the stomach. The exact
cause is unknown. Drugs are often given
to severely ill patients in hospital to pre-
vent the development of stress ulcers.
stretcher A frame covered with fabric
that is used in first aid for carrying the
sick, injured, or deceased.
stretch-mark Another name for
stria
.
stria Also called a stretch-mark, a line on
the
skin
caused by thinning and loss of
elasticity in the dermis. Striae first appear
as red, raised lines. Later they become
purple, eventually fading to shiny streaks.
Striae often develop on the hips and
thighs during the adolescent growth
spurt, especially in athletic girls. They are
a common feature of pregnancy, occur-
ring on the breasts, thighs, and lower
abdomen. Purple striae are a character-
istic feature of
Cushing's syndrome.
Striae are thought to be caused by an
excess of
corticosteroid hormones
. There
is no means of prevention, but in some
cases laser treatment may be used.
stricture Narrowing of a duct, canal, or
other passage in the body.
stridor An abnormal breathing sound
caused by narrowing or obstruction of
the
larynx
or
trachea
. Stridor is most
common in young children. It usually
occurs in
croup.
Other causes include
epiglottitis
, an inhaled
foreign body
,
hy-
pocalcaemia
, and some larynx disorders.
528
previous page 526 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 528 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off