tabes dorsalis A rare complication of
that appears years after
infection. The condition causes abnor-
incoordination, and incontinence.
tachycardia An adult heart rate of over
100 beats per minute. The average heart
rate is 72-78 beats per minute. Tachy-
cardia occurs in healthy people during
exercise. At rest, it may be due to
anxiety, hyperthyroidism, coronary artery
intake, or treatment
There are various types of tachycardia,
which originate in different areas of the
heart; the types include
sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachy-
tachypnoea An abnormally fast rate of
breathing, which may be caused by exer-
cise, anxiety, or lung or cardiac disorders.
T'ai chi A Chinese exercise system based
on a series of over
which slow, continuous movements are
made. The aim is to exercise the muscles
and integrate mind and body.
club-foot) in which the foot is twisted
out of shape or position. The cause may
be pressure on the feet from the mother's
uterus, or a genetic factor. The most
common form is an equinovarus defor-
mity, in which the heel turns inwards
and the rest of the foot bends down and
manipulation of the foot and ankle,
starting soon after birth. A plaster
may be used to hold
the foot in position. If this is not suc-
cessful, surgery will be needed.
talus The square-shaped foot bone that
forms the ankle joint together with the
used to treat certain forms of
, and, sometimes, to treat some types
. It may cause nausea, vomit-
ing, hot flushes, swollen ankles, and
irregular vaginal bleeding.
tampon A plug of absorbent material
inserted into a wound or body opening to
soak up blood or other secretions. The
term commonly refers to a vaginal tam-
pon, used to absorb menstrual blood.
tamponade Compression of the heart by
fluid within the
, which may
cause breathlessness and collapse. Caus-
, complications after
heart surgery, or a chest injury. A diag-
nosis is made by
the fluid is removed through a needle.
for the treatment of urinary symptoms
due to an enlarged prostate gland (see
Side effects include
low blood pressure, drowsiness, dry
mouth, and gastrointestinal disturbances.
tannin Also known as tannic acid, a
chemical that occurs in many plants, par-
ticularly tea. It may cause constipation,
and large amounts cause liver damage.
tantrum An outburst of bad behaviour,
common in toddlers, usually indicating
frustration and anger.
tapeworm infestation Tapeworms (ces-
todes) are ribbon-shaped worms that
infest the intestines of humans and ani-
mals. They are usually acquired by
eating undercooked meat or fish. Tape-
worms from beef, pork, and fish usually
only cause mild abdominal discomfort
or diarrhoea. However, if eggs of pork
worms are ingested, the hatched larvae
burrow into tissues to form cysts. This
leads to cysticerosis, the symptoms of
which are muscle pain and convulsions.
Rarely, fish tapeworms cause
Dwarf tapeworms, common in the trop-
ics, can cause diarrhoea and abdominal
discomfort. Tapeworms acquired from
is made from the presence of worm seg-
ments or eggs in the faeces. Treatment
tardive dyskinesia Abnormal, uncon-
trolled movements, mainly of the face,
tongue, mouth, and neck. Tardive dyski-
nesia may be caused by prolonged use
, and is distinct