TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY
TENESMUS
temporal lobe epilepsy A form of
epilepsy
in which abnormal electrical dis-
charges occur in the temporal lobe (most
of the lower side of each half of the
cere-
brum)
in the
brain.
The usual cause is
damage to the temporal lobe, which
may be due to a
birth injury, head injury,
brain tumour, brain abscess,
or
stroke.
Attacks of this form of epilepsy cause
dreamlike states, unpleasant
hallucina-
tions
of smell or taste, the perception of
an illusory scene, or
déjà vu.
There may
also be grimacing, rotation of the head
and eyes, and sucking and chewing
movements. The affected person may
have no memory of activities during an
attack, which can last for minutes or
hours. Sometimes, the seizure develops
into a
grand mal
seizure. Diagnosis and
drug treatment is the same as for other
forms of epilepsy.
temporomandibular join t The joint
between the mandible (lower jaw bone)
and the
skuU.
temporomandibular joint syndrome
Pain and other symptoms affecting the
head, jaw, and face, thought to result
when the
temporomandibular joints
and
the muscles and ligaments attached to
them do not work together correctly.
Causes include spasm of the chewing
muscles, an incorrect bite (see
maloc-
clusion),
jaw, head, or neck injuries, or
osteoarthritis.
Common symptoms include
headaches, tenderness of the jaw mus-
cles, and aching facial pain. Treatment
involves correction of any underlying
abnormality,
analgesic drugs,
and, in
some cases, injection of
corticosteroid
drugs
into the joint.
tenderness Pain or abnormal sensitivity
in a part of the body when it is pressed
or touched.
tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon,
usually caused by injury or overuse.
Symptoms of tendinitis include pain,
tenderness, and restricted movement.
Treatment is with
nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs),
ultrasound
treatment,
or injection of a
corticosteroid
drug
around the tendon.
tendolysis An operation performed to
free a
tendon
from
adhesions
that limit
its movement. The adhesions are usu-
ally caused by
tenos}movitis.
tendon A fibrous cord that joins muscle
to bone or muscle to muscle. Tendons
are strong and flexible, but inelastic.
Those in the hands, wrists, and feet are
enclosed in synovial sheaths (fibrous
capsules) that secrete a lubricating fluid.
TENDON
tendon release See
tendolysis.
tendon repair Surgery to join the cut
or torn ends of, or to replace, a
tendon.
tendon rupture A complete tear in a
tendon.
A tendon may rupture when the
muscle to which it is attached contracts
suddenly and powerfully, such as during
vigorous exercise. Rupture may also be
due to an injury or joint disorder such
as
rheumatoid
arthritis.
Symptoms
include a snapping sensation, impaired
movement, pain, and swelling. Diagnosis
is usually obvious from the symptoms.
Surgery to repair the tendon may be
needed. In some cases, the tendon may
heal if immobilized in a plaster
cast.
tendon transfer Surgery to reposition
a
tendon so
that it makes a muscle per-
form a different function. The tendon is
cut from its original point of attachment
and reattached elsewhere, making the
muscle lie in a different position. The
procedure may be used to treat
talipes
or permanent muscle injury or paralysis,
tenesmus A feeling of incomplete empty-
ing of the bowel in which an urge to pass
faeces
accompanies ineffective straining.
It may be a symptom of inflammation
or of a tumour (see
colon
,
cancer of).
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