TESTIS
TESTIS, TORSION OF
cancerous change in later life, and ther-
apy with
oestrogen drugs.
An affected
person is not fertile but can live a nor-
mal life as a woman.
testis One of 2 male sexual organs, also
called testicles, that produce
sperm
and
the hormone
testosterone
. The testes
develop in the fetus within the abdomen
and usually descend into the
scrotum
by birth or within the next few months.
Each testis contains seminiferous tubu-
les that produce sperm. Cells between
the seminiferous tubules produce testos-
terone. Each testis is suspended by the
spermatic cord,
composed of the vas
def-
erens
, blood vessels, and nerves. (See
also
testis, undescended.)
TESTIS
Bladder Vas
, deferens
Spermatic
cord
Vas
deferens
Testis \ Epididymis
LOCATION
Epididymis
Seminiferous
tubule
STRUCTURE OF A TESTIS
testis,
cancer
of A rare,
cancerous
tumour of the
testis
. Testicular cancer is
most common in young to middle-aged
men, and the risk increases in indi-
viduals with a history of undescended
testis (see
testis, undescended
).
The
most common types of testicular cancer
are seminomas, which are made up of
only 1 type of cell, and
teratomas.
The
cancer usually appears as a firm, pain-
less swelling of 1 testis. There may also
be pain and inflammation.
Biopsy
, fol-
lowed by
orchidectomy
, is the usual
treatment, and may be combined with
chemotherapy
.
The
tumours
usually
respond well to treatment.
testis, ectopic A
testis
that is absent
from the
scrotum
because it has descen-
ded into an abnormal position, usually
in the groin or at the base of the penis.
The condition is most often discovered
soon after birth during a routine physical
examination. It is treated by
orchidopexy
.
(See also
testis, undescended
.)
testis, pain in the Pain in a
testis
may
be caused by mild injury, a tear in the
wall of the testis due to a direct blow,
orchitis
,
epididymo-orchitis
, and torsion
of the testis (see
testis, torsion
of). Some-
times, no cause is found and the pain
disappears without treatment. If the wall
of the testis is torn, an operation to
repair it may be needed.
testis,
retractile
A
testis
that is drawn up
high into the groin by
a
pronounced muscle
reflex
in
response to
cold or touch. A retrac-
tile testis is normal in
young children, but it
usually disappears by
puberty.
testis,
swollen
Swel-
ling of the
testis
or the
surrounding tissues in
the
scrotum.
Harmless
and painless swellings
include
epidid}mial cysts,
hydroceles, varicoceles,
and
spermatoceles.
Can-
cer of the testis (see
testis
,
cancer of)
is rare
but may be a cause of
painless swelling. Swel-
ling that is painful may be caused by a
direct blow, torsion of the testis (see
testis, torsion of
),
orchitis
,
epididymo-
orchitis
, or, in very rare cases, cancer of
the testis. Any swelling of the testes
should be assessed promptly by a doctor.
testis, torsion of Twisting of the
sper-
matic cord
that causes severe pain and
swelling of the
testis.
The pain develops
rapidly and is sometimes accompanied
by abdominal pain and nausea. The tes-
tis becomes swollen and very tender,
and the skin of the
scrotum
becomes
discoloured. Unless the torsion is treated
within a few hours, permanent damage
to the testis results. The condition is
Urethra
Scrotum
T
543
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