TONSILLECTOMY
TOUCH
TONSIL
from birth until the age of 7, after which
time they shrink substantially.
Tonsillitis
is a common childhood infection,
to n s ille c to m y
Surgical removal of the
tonsils,
which is now performed only if a
child suffers frequent, recurrent attacks
of severe
tonsillitis.
The operation is also
carried out to treat
quinsy
(an abscess
around the tonsil).
to n s illitis
Inflammation of the
tonsils
as
a result of infection. Tonsillitis mainly
occurs in children under age 9. Some-
times the tonsils become repeatedly
infected by the microorganisms they are
supposed to protect against. The main
symptoms are a sore throat and diffi-
culty in swallowing. The throat is visibly
inflamed. Other common symptoms are
fever, headache, earache, enlarged and
tender
fysmph nodes
in the neck, and
bad breath. Occasionally, there may be
temporary deafness or
quinsy
(an abs-
cess around the tonsil).
Tonsillitis is treated with plenty of flu-
ids and an
analgesic drug
such as
paracetamol; in some cases
antibiotic
drugs
may also be prescribed,
to o th
See
teeth.
to o th a b s c e s s
See
abscess
,
dental.
to o th a c h e
Pain in 1
or more
teeth
and
sometimes the
gums.
Causes include
dental
caries,
a tooth fracture (see
frac-
ture
(,
dental),
a deep, unlined filling (see
fillin gden tal), periodontitis,
a dental
abscess (see
abscess
,
dental),
a blow to
a tooth, or referred pain from
sinusitis.
Analgesic drugs
may provide temporary
relief. Treatment depends on the cause.
to o th b r u s h in g
Cleaning of the
teeth
with a brush to remove
plaque
and food
particles from tooth surfaces and to stim-
ulate the gums. Toothbrushing should
be carried out twice a day using a fluo-
ride
dentifrice
(usually toothpaste),
to o th d e c a y
See
caries
,
dental.
to o th e x t r a c t i o n
See
extraction
,
dental.
t o o th p a s te
See
dentifrice.
to p h u s
A collection of
uric acid
crystals
deposited in tissues, especially around
joints, but occasionally in other places
such as the ear. It is a sign of hj/per-
uricaemia,
which accompanies
gout.
to p ic a l
A term describing a
drug
that is
applied to the surface of the body, not
swallowed or injected,
to rs io n
A term that means twisting, often
applied to the intestine or
testis.
to rtic o llis
Tvisting of the neck, causing
the head to be tilted and fixed in an ab-
normal position (wry neck). There is
often neck pain and stiffness. The cause
is usually a minor neck injury that irri-
tates cervical nerves, leading to
muscle
spasm.
Other causes are sleeping in an
awkward position, a neck-muscle injury
at birth, and a burn or injury that has
caused heavy scarring.
Torticollis due to muscle spasm may be
treated by use of an orthopaedic collar
(see
collar: orthopaedic), heat treatment,
ultrasound treatment, physiotherapy,
or
injections of the toxin that causes
botu-
lism.
When the cause is an injury arising
from birth, the muscle is gently stretched
several times each day; occasionally, an
operation is required,
to u c h
The sense by which certain cha-
racteristics of objects, such as their size,
shape, temperature, and surface texture,
can be ascertained by physical contact.
The skin has many types of touch
receptors,
including Merkel's discs and
Meissner's corpuscles to detect light
touch, and Pacinian corpuscles to sense
deep pressure and vibration. Signals
from these receptors pass, via sensory
nerves, to the spinal cord, from there to
the
thalamus
in the brain, and on to the
sensory cortex,
where touch sensations
are perceived and interpreted.
The various parts of the body differ in
their sensitivity to painful stimuli and
in touch discrimination. For example, the
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