TRACTION
TRANSIENT ISCHAEMIC ATTACK
T
term also refers to a bundle of nerve
fibres that have a common function.
traction A procedure in which part of
the body is placed under tension to cor-
rect
the
alignment
of
2
adjoining
structures or to hold them in position.
Traction is most commonly used to
treat a
fracture
in which muscles around
the bone ends are pulling the bones
out of alignment.
training
A programme of exercises that
is undertaken to prepare for a particular
sport. Training may be concentrated on
improving skills or on improving physical
fitness.
Fitness training should include
both
aerobic
and anaerobic exercises,
which together build up strength, flexi-
bility, and endurance. Interval training
is a type of fitness programme in which
a particular exercise is repeated several
times with a rest period between. Cir-
cuit training consists of performing a
set number of different exercises.
trait
Any characteristic or condition that
is inherited (determined by
1
or more
genes).
Blue or brown eye colour, dark
or light skin, body proportions, and nose
shape are examples of genetic traits.
The term trait is also sometimes used
to describe a mild form of a recessive
genetic disorder.
tramadol An
opioid drug
used to relieve
severe pain following a heart attack, sur-
gery, or serious illness. It is less likely to
cause dependence with long-term use
than most opioids. Possible side effects
include nausea, vomiting, drowsiness,
confusion, and impaired consciousness.
trance A sleeplike state in which con-
sciousness is reduced, voluntary actions
lessened or absent, and body functions
diminished. Trances are claimed to be
induced by
hypnosis
and have been
reported as part of a group experience.
Trances may be a feature of
catalepsy
,
automatism
, and petit mal
epilepsy
.
tranexamic acid An antifibrinolytic drug
that promotes
blood clotting
. It is used
to treat
menorrhagia
. Possible side effects
include diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting.
tranquillizer drugs Drugs that have a
sedative effect. Tranquillizers are div-
ided into
2
types: major tranquillizers
(see
antipsychotic drugs)
and minor
tranquillizers (see
antianxiety drugs).
transcutaneous
electrical
nerve
stimulation See
TENS.
transdermal patch A method of admin-
istering a drug through the skin. The drug
is released from the patch over a period
of time and is absorbed by the skin.
TRANSDERM AL PATCH
Patch
applied
to skin
transference
The unconscious displace-
ment of emotions from people who
were important during one's childhood,
such as parents, to other people during
adulthood. (See also
psychoanalysis.)
transfusion
See blood transfusion.
transfusion,
autologous See
blood
transfusion, autologous
.
transient ischaemic attack (TIA) A
brief interruption of the blood supply to
part of the brain, which causes tem-
porary impairment of vision, speech,
sensation, or movement. The episode
typically lasts for several minutes or, at
the most, for a few hours. TIAs are some-
times described as mini strokes, and
they can be the prelude to a
stroke
.
TIAs may be caused by a blood clot
(see
embolism
) temporarily blocking an
artery that supplies the brain, or by
narrowing of an artery as a result
of
atherosclerosis
.
After a TIA, tests such as
CT scanning
,
blood tests
,
ultrasound scanning
,
or
angiography
may be needed to deter-
mine a cause. In some cases, the heart
is studied as a possible source of blood
clots. Treatment is aimed at preventing
stroke, which occurs within 5 years in
up to one third of patients with TIA.
Treatments include
endarterectomy
,
anti-
coagulant drugs
, or
aspirin
.
558
previous page 556 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online next page 558 BMA Illustrated Medical Dictionary read online Home Toggle text on/off