transillumination A procedure that is
sometimes carried out during physical
examination of a lump or swelling. Light
from a small torch is shone on
the lump; if it can be seen on the other
side, the lump contains clear fluid.
translocation A rearrangement of the
inside a person's cells; it
is a type of
Sections of chro-
mosomes may be exchanged or the main
chromosomes may be joined.
A translocation may be inherited or ac-
quired as the result of a new mutation.
A translocation often has no obvious
effect, and causes no abnormality. How-
ever, in some cases, it can mean that
some of the affected person's egg or
sperm cells carry too much or too little
chromosomal material, which may cause
in his or her children.
transmissible A term meaning capable
of being passed from one person, or
one organism, to another.
transplant surgery Replacement of a
diseased organ or tissue with a healthy,
living substitute. The organ is usually
taken from a person who has just died.
Some kidneys are transplanted from a
patient's living relatives (see
). The results of surgery have also
been improved by testing for
is a major problem. However,
a combination of a
are given in order to
suppress this response.
Every patient who undergoes an organ
transplant operation must take
indefinitely. (See also
heart transplant; heart-lung transplant;
liver transplant; kidney transplant.)
transposition of the great vessels A
serious form of congenital
in which the
and pulmonary artery
Open heart surgery
needed to correct the defect.
transsexualism A rare disorder in which
a person wishes to live as a member of
the opposite sex. Transsexuals commonly
seek hormonal or surgical treatment to
bring about a physical sex change. A
psychiatric evaluation and a physical
examination are necessary before such
treatment is undertaken.
transvestism Also called cross-dressing,
a persistent desire by a man to dress in
that belongs to the
(MAOI) group and is used main-
ly in patients with severe depression.
trapezius muscle A large, diamond-
extending from the back
of the skull to the lower part of the
spine in the chest and across the width
of the shoulders. It is attached to the
top and back of the shoulderblade and
to the outermost part of the collarbone.
The trapezius helps support the neck and
spine and is involved in moving the arm.
trapped nerve See
trauma A physical injury or severe emo-
tional shock. (See also
trauma surgery See
traumatology Emergency treatment of
patients suffering from acute trauma
(such as severe and/or multiple injuries).
travel immunization Anyone planning
to travel abroad may need
before departure. Although few
immunizations are compulsory for inter-
national travel, some are recommended
for the traveller's protection.
Travel agents and tour operators often
include information about which immu-
nizations may be needed, but travellers
should consult a doctor about individ-
ual requirements. Some vaccines must
be given in 2-3 doses several weeks
apart. Therefore, a doctor should be
consulted at least 2-3 months before
departure. Children under 1 year, and
people with a compromised immune
system or serious underlying disorder
may not be able to have some vacci-
nations, such as those for yellow fever
and tuberculosis (BCG).
traveller's diarrhoea A disorder occur-
ring in people who are visiting foreign
countries. Episodes of diarrhoea range
in severity and are due to
Attention to hygiene, drinking bottled
water, and avoiding ice in drinks can
prevent a large proportion of episodes.
travel sickness See
a strong sedative effect that is used to