TRICHOMONIASIS
TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS
around the eyelids, and severe muscle
pains, which may last for several weeks.
Trichinosis may be suspected from the
symptoms, and the diagnosis is con-
firmed by
blood tests,
or by a muscle
biopsy
. Treatment of the infestation is
with an
anthelmintic drug.
trichomoniasis An infection caused by
the
protozoan trichomonas vaginalis.
Trichomoniasis is a common cause of
vaginitis.
In some cases, the infection is
sexually transmitted.
In women, the causative organism
may inhabit the
vagina
for years without
causing symptoms. If symptoms occur,
they include painful inflammation of
the vagina and
vulva
, and a greenish,
frothy, offensive-smelling discharge. Men
usually have no symptoms.
The diagnosis is made from exami-
nation of a sample of the discharge.
Diagnosis usually difficult in men. Treat-
ment is with
metronidazole
. The sexual
partner or partners of an infected per-
son should be treated at the same time
to prevent reinfection.
trichotillomania The habit of cons-
tantly pulling out one's hair. It can be
associated with severe
mental handicap
or with a psychotic illness. It may also
occur in psychologically disturbed chil-
dren. The sufferer typically pulls, twists,
and breaks off chunks of hair from the
scalp, leaving bald patches; occasionally,
pubic hair is pulled out. Children some-
times eat the removed hair, which may
form a hairball in the stomach, known
medically as a trichobezoar (see
bezoar
).
Treatment depends on the cause, and
may consist of
psychotherapy
or
anti-
psychotic drugs
.
trichuriasis A parasitic infestation with
the tropical worm
trichuris trichura
(whipworm). Children are most com-
monly affected. Infestation occurs when
eggs are ingested and develop into
adult worms in the intestines. Severe
infestation may cause bloody diarrhoea,
abdominal pain, and weight loss. Treat-
ment is with
anthelmintic drugs.
triclosan An
antiseptic.
tricuspid incompetence Failure of the
tricuspid valve
to close fully, allowing
blood to leak back into the right atrium
when the right ventricle contracts. The
TRICUSPID VALVE
Tricuspid
valve
Right
ventricle
STRUCTURE OF HEART
condition,
which
is also known as
tricuspid insuffic-
iency, reduces the
pumping
effici-
ency of the heart.
The usual cause is
pulmonary hyper-
tension
, but more
rarely,
it follows
rheumatic
fever
,
or, in intravenous
drug users, a bac-
terial infection of
the heart.
Tricuspid incom-
petence results in
symptoms of right-
sided
heart failure
, notably
oedema
of
the ankles and abdomen. The liver is
swollen and tender, and veins in the
neck are distended.
A diagnosis is made from the symp-
toms, from hearing a heart
murmur
through a stethoscope, and by tests that
may include an
E cG
,
chest X-rays
,
echo-
cardiography,
and cardiac
catheterization.
Treatment with
diuretic drugs
and
A cE
inhibitors
often relieves the symptoms.
tricuspid stenosis Narrowing of the
opening of the
tricuspid valve
, usually
caused by a previous attack of
rheumatic
fever
. Tricuspid stenosis is uncommon
and often occurs with another heart-
valve disorder. For example,
tricuspid
incompetence
may also occur in intra-
venous drug users who have a bacterial
infection of the heart. Tricuspid stenosis
causes enlargement of the right atrium.
The symptoms and diagnosis are simi-
lar to those of tricuspid incompetence.
Treatment is with
diuretic drugs
and
sometimes a
digitalis drug. Heart-valve
surgery
is sometimes needed.
tricuspid valve A valve in the
heart
consisting of 3 flaps that lies between
the right atrium and the right ventricle.
It ensures that blood flow from the atri-
um to the ventricle is in
1
direction only,
tricyclic antidepressants A type of
antidepressant drug.
Tricyclic antidepres-
sants prevent
neurotransmitters
in the
brain from being reabsorbed, thereby
increasing their level. Examples are
ami-
triptyline, clomipramine,
and
imipramine.
Aortic
valve
T
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