URETHROCELE
URINARY RETENTION
U
or from a
catheter
or
cystoscope.
Other
possible causes include irritant chemi-
cals, such as antiseptics and some
spermicidal preparations. Treatment of
infection is with
antibiotic drugs.
urethrocele An anatomical abnormality
in females caused by a weakness in the
tissues in the front wall of the
vagina.
The urethra bulges backwards and down-
wards into the vagina. A urethrocele may
be
congenital
but more commonly devel-
ops after
childbirth.
-uria A suffix relating to
urine.
uric acid A waste product of the break-
down of
nucleic acids
in body cells. A
small amount is also produced by the
digestion of foods rich in nucleic acids,
such as liver, kidney, and other offal.
Most uric acid produced in the body
passes to the kidneys, which excrete it
in the
urine
, but some passes into the
intestine, where it is broken down into
chemicals excreted in the
faeces
.
When uric acid excretion is disrupted,
for example by kidney disease, it may
result in
hyperuricaemia
.
urinal A container for
urine,
useful for
bedridden men (women use a
bedpan
).
urinalysis Tests on
urine,
including mea-
surements of its physical characteristics
(such as colour, cloudiness, and concen-
tration), microscopic examination, and
chemical testing such as dipstick urinaly-
sis. This involves dipping a test stick into
a urine sample; chemically impregnated
squares on the stick change colour in the
presence of test substances. The inten-
sity of colour change shows the amount
of the substance present in the urine.
Urinalysis can be used to check kidney
function, and to help detect and diag-
nose urinary tract and other disorders.
urinary diversion Any surgical proced-
ure (temporary or permanent) that allows
urine flow when the outlet channel of the
urinary tract
, via the bladder and urethra,
is obstructed or cannot be used, or the
bladder has been surgically removed.
Temporary urinary diversion is some-
times needed when urine passage is
blocked by
prostate gland
enlargement
or by
urethral stricture.
A tube is passed
directly into the bladder through a
small opening in the abdomen (see
catheterization, urinary
). Temporary div-
ersion is also required after some urinary
tract operations; a small tube is intro-
duced into the kidney and brought to
the abdominal surface.
Permanent diversion is needed when
the bladder has been surgically removed,
when neurological bladder control is
severely disturbed, such as after severe
spinal injury, or if there is an irreparable
fistula
between a female patient's bladder
or urethra and her vagina. A section of
the
ileum
is removed to create a substi-
tute bladder, into one end of which the
surgeon implants the ureters. The other
end of the substitute bladder is then
brought out through an incision in the
abdominal wall. The patient wears a bag
attached to the skin to collect urine.
urinary retention Inability to empty the
bladder
or difficulty in doing so. Urinary
retention may be complete (urine can-
not be passed voluntarily at all) or
incomplete (the bladder fails to empty
completely). In males, causes include
phimosis, urethral stricture, prostatitis,
a
Squares on
test stick are
matched to
colour chart
URINALYSIS
Test stick
is dipped
in urine
sample
Urine
sample
Colour
chart
DIPSTICK-URINALYSIS
570
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