URINE TESTS
URTICARIA
Abnormal composition of the urine may
occur in
diabetes mellitus, kidney failure,
and sometimes
glomerulonephritis
and
nephrotic syndrome
, as well as in other
kidney disorders such as
Fanconi's syn-
drome
and
renal tubular acidosis
.
urine tests See
urinalysis.
urodynamics A group of tests carried
out to investigate problems with
bladder
control, such as
incontinence
. Urodyna-
mic studies involve the insertion of
probes into the
urethra
, bladder, and
rectum
or
vagina
in order to monitor
pressure changes while the bladder is
being filled and emptied.
In
X-ray
monitoring, the patient stands
against an upright table while his or her
bladder is filled with a
contrast medium
through a
catheter
and is then emptied
again. The shape and functioning of the
bladder, and the functioning of the ure-
thra, can then be viewed on an X-ray
monitor. At the same time, a continu-
ous recording of pressure changes within
the bladder is made on a paper trace.
As the bladder is being filled, the
patient is asked to cough. This action
increases the pressure in and around
the bladder, and if it causes leakage of
urine onto an electronic absorbent pad,
the patient has stress incontinence (see
incontinence, urinary).
urography See
intravenous urography.
urology A branch of medicine concerned
with the structure, functioning, and dis-
orders of the
urinary tract
in males and
females, and of the
reproductive system
in males. Investigative techniques that
are used in urology include
urography
,
cystoscopy
,
ultrasound scanning
,
cysto-
metry
, and
urinalysis
.
ursodeoxycholic acid A drug used to
dissolve
gallstones
. It is only suitable if
the stones are made exclusively of
cholesterol
and if the gallbladder is
functioning normally. Side effects of the
drug are rare but can include diarrhoea,
indigestion, and a rash. Drug treatment
is less commonly used since the intro-
duction of
minimally invasive surgery
.
urticaria A skin condition, also known
as nettle rash or hives, that is character-
ized by the development of itchy weals,
usually on the limbs and trunk. Large
weals may merge to form irregular,
raised patches.
Urticaria is generally harmless and usu-
ally lasts only a few hours. Sometimes a
persistent or recurrent form develops.
Dermographism
is a less common form
URODYNAMICS
Radiographer
Urethra
X-ray
monitor
Pressure trace
Lead from
vaginal probe
Lead from
bladder probe
Lead from
electronic pad
X-ray table
Solution
containing
contrast
medium
X-ray machine
Catheter
to bladder
X-RAY MONITORING
U
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