ACARBOSE
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
acarbose
A drug that is used to treat
type 2
diabetes mellitus.
Acarbose acts
on enzymes in the intestines, inhibiting
the digestion of starch and therefore
slowing the rise in
blood glucose
levels
after a carbohydrate meal.
accessory nerve
The 11th
cranial nerve.
Unlike the other cranial nerves, most of
the accessory nerve originates from the
spinal cord. The small part of the nerve
that originates from the brain supplies
many muscles of the palate, pharynx
(throat), and larynx (voice box). Damage
to this part of the nerve may cause diffi-
culty in speaking and swallowing. The
spinal part of the nerve supplies large
muscles of the neck and back, notably
the sternomastoid and trapezius. Dam-
age to the spinal fibres of the nerve
paralyses these muscles.
accidental death
Death that occurs as
a direct result of an accident. A high pro-
portion of deaths in young adults,
particularly among males, are acciden-
tal. Many of these deaths are due to
road traffic accidents, drowning, or drug
overdose. Falls in the home and burning
or asphyxiation due to fire are common
causes of accidental death in elderly
people. Fatal accidents at work have
become less common with the intro-
duction of effective safety measures.
accommodation
Adjustment, especially
the process by which the eye adjusts
itself to focus on near objects. At rest,
the eye is focused for distant vision,
when its lens is thin and flat. To make
focusing on a nearer object possible,
the ciliary muscle of the eye contracts,
which reduces the pull on the outer rim
of the lens, allowing it to become thicker
and more convex.
With age, the lens loses its elasticity.
This makes accommodation more and
more difficult and results in a form of
longsightedness called
presbyopia.
acebutolol
A
beta-blocker drug
used to
treat
hypertension
,
angina pectoris
, and
certain types of
arrhythmia
in which the
heart beats too rapidly.
A C E inhibitor drugs
A group of
vaso-
dilator drugs
used to treat
heart failure
,
hypertension
, and diabetic
nephropathy
.
ACE (
angiotensin converting enzyme
) in-
hibitors are often prescribed with other
drugs such as
diuretic drugs
or
beta-
blocker drugs.
Possible
side effects
include nausea, loss of taste, headache,
dizziness, and dry cough.
acetaminophen
An
analgesic
drug
more commonly known as
paracetam ol
.
acetazolamide
A drug that is used in
the treatment of
glaucoma
and, occa-
sionally, to prevent or treat symptoms
of
mountain sickness
. Possible adverse
effects include lethargy, nausea, diar-
rhoea, and impotence.
acetic acid
The colourless, pungent, org-
anic acid that gives vinegar its sour
taste. In medicine, acetic acid is an
ingredient of antiseptic gels that are
used for certain vaginal infections.
acetylcholine
A type of
neurotransmit-
ter
(a chemical that transmits messages
between nerve cells or between nerve
and muscle cells). Acetylcholine is the
neurotransmitter found at all nerve-
muscle junctions and at many other
sites in the nervous system. The actions
of acetylcholine are called cholinergic
actions, and these can be blocked by
anticholinergic drugs
.
acetylcholinesterase
inhibitors
A
group of drugs that are used in the
treatment of mild to moderate
dementia
due to
Alzheimer's disease,
in which
there is a deficiency of the neuro-
transmitter
acetylcholine
in the brain.
A
ACCOMMODATION
Light rays from
Point of
Light rays from
Point of
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