BEHÇET'S SYNDROME
BENZOYL PEROXIDE
will render it less threatening, and that
desirable behaviour can be encouraged
by using a system of rewards.
Specific behaviour therapy techniques
include exposure therapy (also called
desensitization), response prevention,
flooding, and modelling. Exposure ther-
apy is commonly used to treat phobic
disorders such as
agoraphobia,
animal
phobias, and flying phobias. It consists
of exposing the patient in stages to the
cause of the anxiety. The patient is
taught to cope with anxiety symptoms
by
using
relaxation
techniques.
In
flooding, the patient is confronted with
the anxiety-provoking stimulus all at
once, but with the support of the thera-
pist. In response prevention, the patient
is prevented from
carrying
out an
obsessional task; the technique is used
in combination with other methods. In
modelling,
the therapist acts as a
model for the patient, performing the
anxiety-provoking activity first, in order
that the patient may copy.
Behpet's syndrome
A rare, multisystem
disorder with recurrent
mouth ulcers
and
genital ulcers
and inflammation of
the eyes, skin joints, blood vessels,
brain, and intestines. The cause of
Behget's syndrome is unknown, but it is
strongly associated with a genetically
determined
histocompatability antigen
,
HLA-B51. Treatment is difficult and may
require
corticosteroid
and
immunosup-
pressant drugs.
The condition often
becomes long-term.
belching
The noisy return of air from
the stomach through the mouth. Swal-
lowing air is usually an unconscious
habit, which may result from eating or
drinking too much too quickly. Some-
times, belching alleviates discomfort
caused by indigestion.
belladonna
An extract of the deadly
nightshade plant that has been used
medicinally since ancient times. It con-
tains
alkaloids
, including
atropine
, that
are used as
antispasmodic drugs
in
treating gastrointestinal disturbances.
(See also
anticholinergic drugs.)
Bell's palsy
The most common form of
facial palsy
(facial muscle weakness).
bendrofluazide
An alternative name
for
bendroflumethiazide
.
bendroflumethiazide
A thiazide
diur-
etic drug
used to treat
hypertension
and
heart failure
.
bends
The nonmedical term for
decom -
pression sickness
.
benign
A term used to describe a dis-
ease that is relatively harmless. When
used to refer to tumours, benign means
noncancerous tumours that do not in-
vade or destroy local tissues and do not
spread to other sites within the body.
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
A medical term for enlargement of the
prostate gland (see
prostate
,
enlarged
).
benorilate
A
nonsteroidal anti-inflam-
matory drug
that contains
aspirin
and
paracetam ol
. Benorilate is mainly used
to relieve joint pain and stiffness in
osteoarthritis
and
rheumatoid arthritis
.
Side effects are not usually serious, but
the aspirin in the drug may cause nau-
sea or indigestion.
benzalkonium chloride
A widely used
preservative in eye drops and products
such as cosmetics and mouth washes.
benzodiazepine
drugs
A group of
drugs given for short periods as
sleep-
ing drugs
for
insomnia
and to control
the symptoms of
anxiety
or
stress
(see
tranquillizer drugs).
Common benzodi-
azepines include
diazepam
, which is
used as a tranquillizer, and
nitrazepam
,
which is sometimes used for insomnia.
Benzodiazepines are also used in the
management of alcohol withdrawal and
in the control of
epilepsy
.
Minor adverse effects of benzodiaz-
epines
include
daytime
drowsiness,
dizziness, and forgetfulness. Unstead-
iness and slowed reactions may also
occur. Regular users may become psy-
chologically and physically dependent;
for this reason, the drugs are usually
given for courses of 2-3 weeks or less.
When the drugs are stopped suddenly,
withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety,
restlessness,
and
nightmares
may
occur. Benzodiazepine drugs are some-
times abused for their sedative effect.
benzoyl peroxide
An
antiseptic
agent
used in the treatment of acne and
fungal skin infections (see
fungal infec-
tions).
In acne, benzoyl peroxide also
acts by removing the surface layer of
skin, unblocking sebaceous glands.
B
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