BRONCHOSPASM
BUDESONIDE
B
bronchospasm
Temporary narrowing of
the bronchi (airways into the lungs) due
to contraction of the muscles in the
walls of the bronchi, by inflammation of
the lining of the bronchi, or by a combi-
nation of both. Contraction may be
triggered by the release of substances
during an allergic reaction (see
allergy
).
When the airways are narrowed, the air
is reduced, causing wheezing or cough-
ing.
Asthma
is the most common cause
of bronchospasm. Other causes include
respiratory infection, chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (see
pulmonary dis-
ease, chronic obstructive), anaphylactic
shock,
or allergic reaction to chemicals.
bronchus
A large air passage in a lung.
Each lung has 1
main bronchus, origi-
nating
at the
end
of
the
trachea
(windpipe). This main bronchus divides
into smaller branches known as seg-
mental bronchi, which further divide
into bronchioles.
bronchus, cancer of
See
lung cancer.
brown fat
A special type of fat, found in
infants and some animals. Brown fat is
located between and around the scapu-
lae (shoulderblades) on the back. It is a
source of energy and helps infants to
maintain a constant body temperature.
brucellosis
A rare bacterial infection,
caused by various strains of
br u c e lla ,
which may be transmitted to humans
from affected cattle, goats, and pigs.
Brucellosis may also be transmitted in
unpasteurized dairy products. Initially, it
causes a single bout of high fever, aches,
headache, backache, poor appetite, weak-
ness, and depression. Rarely, untreated
severe cases may lead to
pneumonia
or
meningitis
. In long-term brucellosis, bouts
of the illness recur over months or
years; and depression can be severe. The
disease is treated by
antibiotic drugs.
bruise
A discoloured area under the
skin caused by leakage of blood from
damaged capillaries (tiny blood vessels).
At first, the blood appears blue or black;
then the breakdown of
haemoglobin
turns the bruise yellow. If a bruise does
not fade after a week, or if bruises
appear for no apparent reason or are
severe after only minor injury, they may
be indications of a
bleeding disorder
.
(See also
black
eye;
purpura.)
bruits
The sounds made in the heart,
arteries, or veins when blood circula-
tion becomes turbulent or flows at an
abnormal speed. This happens when
blood vessels become narrowed by dis-
ease (as in
arteriosclerosis
), when heart
valves are narrowed or damaged (as in
endocarditis
), or if blood vessels dilate
(as in an
aneurysm
). Bruits are usually
heard through a
stethoscope
.
bruxism
Rhythmic grinding or clenching
of the teeth that usually occurs during
sleep. The chief underlying causes are
emotional stress and minor discomfort
when the teeth are brought together.
BSE
The abbreviation for
bovine spongi-
form encephalopathy
.
bubonic plague
The most common
form of
plague
, characterized by the
development of a bubo (swollen lymph
node) in the groin or armpit.
buccal
An anatomical term, from the
Latin word for cheek, that means relat-
ing to the cheek or mouth. Some drugs
are available as buccal preparations,
which are placed between the cheek
and gum, where they dissolve and are
absorbed directly into the circulation.
buck teeth
Prominent upper incisors
(front teeth), which protrude from the
mouth. Orthodontic treatment involves
repositioning the teeth with a remov-
able brace (see
brace
,
dental
) or a fixed
orthodontic appliance
.
Budd-Chiari syndrome
A rare disor-
der in which the veins draining blood
from the liver become blocked or nar-
rowed. Blood accumulates in the liver,
which swells.
Liver failure
and
portal
hypertension
result. Treatment is aimed
at removing the cause of the obstruction:
this may be a blood clot, pressure on
the veins from a liver tumour, or a con-
genital abnormality of the veins. In most
cases, treatment has only a limited effect
and, unless a
liver transplant
can be
done, the disease is fatal within
2
years.
budesonide
An inhaled
corticosteroid
drug
used in the treatment of bronchial
asthma
to prevent asthma attacks. It is
administered using an
inhaler.
Side
effects of budesonide, which include
hoarseness, throat irritation and, rarely,
fungal infections, can be reduced by
rinsing the mouth after administration.
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